Deadly Medicine Creating the Master Race

by John Carlos Cantu           


U-M Taubman Health Sciences Library exhibit presents a chilling look at Nazi ideology.

The 1938 words of Dr. Joseph Goebbels, Nazi minister of propaganda, stand above the display panels of what is undoubtedly the most somber exhibit Ann Arbor has seen at the University of Michigan Taubman Health Sciences Library.  Goebbel’s quote runs as follows: “Our starting point is not the individual, and we do not subscribe to the view that one should feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty, or clothe the naked…. Our objectives are entirely different: We must have a healthy people in order to prevail in the world.” 

These words are chilling and they’re more than an adequate rationale for this heart-rending investigation into a politics that sought to implement one of the most perverse policies in history. 

As Mary Beth Reilly, writer for the U-M’s Center for the History of Medicine, says in the display’s gallery statement, “The Nazi regime was founded upon the conviction that ‘inferior races’ and individuals had to be eliminated from German society so that the fittest ‘Aryans’ could thrive. 

“By the end of World War II, six million Jews and millions of others—among them Roma and Sinti (Gypsies), people with disabilities, homosexuals, and others belonging to ethnic groups deemed inferior—had been persecuted and murdered.”  And as Alexandra Minna Stern, Zina Pitcher Collegiate Professor of the History of Medicine and Associate Director of the Center for the History of Medicine at the U-M Medical School, adds, “The exhibition is a visually powerful experience for viewers that shows how the doctrine of racial hygiene was taken to its most heinous extremes.” 

Indeed. And as the exhibit pointedly illustrates, there’s more than enough blame to go around. For the exhibit begins with a panel illustrating the various programs from countries around the world (including the United States) advocating various eugenic schemes at the turn of the 20th century whose “racial hygiene” included programs in population policy, public health education, and government-funded research whose ends (even if they weren’t remotely the same) clearly showed an undeniable bias.  

The rediscovery of Austrian botanist Gregor Mendel’s genetics experiments in 1900 coupled with the increasingly fashionable “Social Darwinism” of British philosopher cum sociologist Herbert Spencer, whose catchphrase “survival of the fittest” was being bandied about, led to increasing public prestige in the efforts to stabilize public policy issues that emerged with increasing industrialization and urbanization. This was, in retrospect, a philosophical and political slippery slope that was in part absorbed in the ideology and practice of the newly emergent Nazi party of the 1920s. 

From the early 1930s through the balance of the Nazi regime, there were repeated campaigns to rid German society of what they viewed as biological threats. As “Deadly Medicine” clearly shows, this policy absorbed the efforts and energies of many of the nation’s most talented doctors, psychiatrists, anthropologists, and medically trained geneticists, as well as social planners and party functionaries at every level.  [And soon to be repeated in the form of Obamacare - ED] 

What started as a secret campaign to eliminate the weak and infirm disguised as medical assistance metastasized into a full-fledge program of eradication under the pressure of World War II. Ultimately, this so-called “sanitary campaign” finally took form as a genocide that we now know as the Holocaust, resulting in the near total annihilation of Europe’s Jewish population. 

To its credit, “Deadly Medicine” doesn’t pull any punches. Its juxtaposition of scientific certitude and racial hatred are handled as responsibly as the topics deserve. 

By naming names, dates, and events—as well as providing significant visual evidence—the exhibit takes the full measure of this circumstance where those in charge of healing and sustenance distorted their responsibilities until their lifework turned into a horror whose pain continues to this day.  

It’s certainly enough pain for Professor Stern to remind us that the example of this massive failure of science, technology, tolerance, and ultimately compassion, “raises weighty questions about the potential benefits and harms of genetic and reproductive technologies today.” And it’s on this cautionary note that the solemn exhibit rightfully concludes.

 

 




“It’s certainly enough pain for Professor Stern to remind us that the example of this massive failure of science, technology, tolerance, and ultimately compassion, “raises weighty questions about the potential benefits and harms of genetic and reproductive technologies today.” And it’s on this cautionary note that the solemn exhibit rightfully concludes.”  The article first appeared here. - DNI


Human Experiments: A Chronology of Human Research

by Vera Hassner Shara


6th century B.C.: Meat and vegetable experiment on young Jewish prisoners in Book of Daniel.

5th century B.C: "Primum non nocere" ("First do no harm"), medical ethics standard attributed to Hippocrates. This Oath became obligatory for physicians prior to practicing medicine in the 4th century AD

1st century B.C. Cleopatra devised an experiment to test the accuracy of the theory that it takes 40 days to fashion a male fetus fully and 80 days to fashion a female fetus. When her handmaids were sentenced to death under government order, Cleopatra had them impregnated and subjected them to subsequent operations to open their wombs at specific times of gestation. [http://www.jlaw.com/Articles/NaziMedExNotes.html#1]

12th century: Rabbi and physician Maimonides' Prayer: "May I never see in the patient anything but a fellow creature in pain."

1796 Edward Jenner injects healthy eight-year-old James Phillips first with cowpox then three months later with smallpox and is hailed as discoverer of smallpox vaccine.

1845-1849: J. Marion Sims, "the father of gynecology" performed multiple experimental surgeries on enslaved African women without the benefit of anesthesia. After suffering unimaginable pain, many lost their lives to infection. One woman was made to endure 34 experimental operations for a prolapsed uterus. http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/jm_sims.htm

1865: French physiologist Claude Bernard publishes "Introduction to the Study of Human Experimentation," advising: "Never perform an experiment which might be harmful to the patient even though highly advantageous to science or the health of others."

1896: Dr. Arthur Wentworth performed spinal taps on 29 children at Children's Hospital, Boston, to determine if the procedure was harmful. Dr. John Roberts of Philadelphia, noting the non-therapeutic indication, labeled Wentworth's procedures "human vivisection."

1897: Italian bacteriologist Sanarelli injects five subjects with bacillus searching for a causative agent for yellow fever.

1900: Walter Reed injects 22 Spanish immigrant workers in Cuba with the agent for yellow fever paying them $100 if they survive and $200 if they contract the disease. 

1900: Berlin Code of Ethics. Royal Prussian Minister of Religion, Education, and Medical Affairs guaranteed that: "all medical interventions for other than diagnostic, healing, and immunization purposes, regardless of other legal or moral authorization are excluded under all circumstances if (1) the human subject is a minor or not competent due to other reasons; (2) the human subject has not given his unambiguous consent; (3) the consent is not preceded by a proper explanation of the possible negative consequences of the intervention."http://www.geocities.com/artnscience/00berlincode.pdf

1906: Dr. Richard Strong, a professor of tropical medicine at Harvard, experiments with cholera on prisoners in the Philippines killing thirteen.

1913: Pennsylvania House of Representatives recorded that 146 children had been inoculated with syphilis, "through the courtesy of the various hospitals" and that 15 children in St. Vincent's House in Philadelphia had had their eyes tested with tuberculin. Several of these children became permanently blind. The experimenters were not punished.

1915: A doctor in Mississippi, working for the U.S. Public Health Office produces Pellagra in twelve Mississippi inmates in an attempt to discover a cure for the disease

1919-1922: Testicular transplant experiments on five hundred prisoners at San Quentin.

1927: Carrie Buck of Charlottesville is legally sterilized against her will at the Virginia Colony Home for the Mentally Infirm. Carrie Buck was the mentally normal daughter of a mentally retarded mother, but under the Virginia law, she was declared potentially capable of having a "less than normal child." By the 1930s, seventeen states in the U.S. have laws permitting forced sterilization.  The settlement of Poe v. Lynchburg Training School and Hospital (same institution, different name) in 1981 brought to an end the Virginia law. It is estimated that as many as 10,000 perfectly normal women were forcibly sterilized for "legal" reasons including alcoholism, prostitution, and criminal behavior in general.

1931: Lubeck, Germany, 75 children die in from pediatrician's experiment with tuberculosis vaccine.  

Germany adopts "Regulation on New Therapy and Experimentation" requiring all human experiments to be preceded by animal experiments. This law remained in effect during the Nazi regime.

1931: Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, a pathologist, conducted a cancer experiment in Puerto Rico under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations. Dr. Rhoads has been accused of purposely infecting his Puerto Rican subjects with cancer cells. Thirteen of the subjects died. A Puerto Rican physician uncovered the experiment an investigation covered-up the facts. Despite Rhoads' hand written statements that the Puerto Rican population should be eradicated, Rhoads went on to establish U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and was later named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Rhoads was also responsible for the radiation experiments on prisoners, hospital patients, and soldiers. The American Association for Cancer Research honored him by naming its exemplary scientist award the Cornelius Rhoads Award.

1932-1972: U.S. Public Health Service study in Tuskegee, Alabama of more than 400 black sharecroppers observed for the natural course of untreated syphilis.

1932: Japanese troops invade Manchuria. Dr. Shiro Ishii, a prominent physician and army officer begins preliminary germ warfare experiments. 

1936: Japan's Wartime Human Biowarfare Experimentation Program.

1938: Japan establishes Unit 731 in Pingfan, 25 km. from Harbin. Unit 731, a biological-warfare unit disguised as a water-purification unit, is formed outside the city of Harbin.

1939: Third Reich orders births of all twins be registered with Public Health Offices for purpose of genetic research.  [[One twin experimented on, the other twin used as a genetic “control”. -- DNI]]

1939: Twenty-two children living at the Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home in Davenport were the subjects of the "monster" experiment that used psychological pressure to induce children who spoke normally to stutter. It was designed by one of the nation's most prominent speech pathologists, Dr. Wendell Johnson, to test his theory on the cause of stuttering.

1940: Poisonous gas experiments at Unit 731 (Japan). One experiment conducted September 7-10, 1940, on 16 Chinese prisoners who were exposed to mustard gas in a simulated battle situation.

1940-1941: Unit 731 (Japan) used aircraft to spread cotton and rice husks contaminated with the black plague at Changde and Ningbo, in central China. About 100 people died from the black plague in Ningbo as a result.

1940's: In a crash program to develop new drugs to fight Malaria during World War II, doctors in the Chicago area infected nearly 400 prisoners with the disease. Although the Chicago inmates were given general information that they were helping with the war effort, they were not informed about the nature of the experiment. Nazi doctors on trial at Nuremberg cited the Chicago studies as precedents to defend their own research aimed at aiding the German war effort.

1941: Sterilization experiments at Auschwitz.

1941-1945: Typhus experiments at Buchenwald and Natzweiler concentration camps.

1941: Dr. William c. Black inoculated a twelve month old baby with herpes. He was criticized by Francis Payton Rous, editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, who called it "an abuse of power, an infringement of the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness which followed had implications for science." Dr. Rous rejected outright the fact that the child had been "offered as a volunteer."

1942 - 1945: Unit 731 (Japan). Ishii begins "field tests" of germ warfare and vivisection experiments on thousands of Chinese soldiers and civilians. Chinese people who rebelled against the Japanese occupation were arrested and sent to Pingfan where they became human guinea pigs; there is evidence that some Russian prisoners were also victims of medical atrocities. "I cut him open from the chest to the stomach and he screamed terribly and his face was all twisted in agony. He made this unimaginable sound, he was screaming so horribly. But then finally he stopped. This was all in a day's work for the surgeons, but it really left an impression on me because it was my first time." - NYT

These prisoners were called 'maruta' (literally 'logs') by the Japanese. After succumbing to induced diseases - including bubonic plague, cholera, anthrax - the prisoners were usually dissected while still alive, their bodies then cremated within the compound. Tens of thousands died. The atrocities were committed by some of Japan's most distinguished doctors recruited by Dr. Ishii.

1942: High altitude or low pressure experiments at Dachau concentration camp.

1942: Harvard biochemist Edward Cohn injects sixty-four Massachusetts prisoners with beef blood in U.S. Navy-sponsored experiment.

1942: Japanese sprayed cholera, typhoid, plague, and dysentery pathogens in the Jinhua area of Zhejian province (China). A large number of Japanese soldiers also fell victim to the sprayed diseases.

1942-1943: Bone regeneration and transplantation experiments on female prisoners at Ravensbrueck concentration camp.

1942-1943: Freezing experiments at Dachau concentration camp.

1943 Refrigeration experiment conducted on sixteen mentally disabled patients who were placed in refrigerated cabinets at 30 degree Farenheit, for 120 hours, at University of Cincinnati Hospital., "to study the effect of frigid temperature on mental disorders."

1942-1943: Coagulation experiments on Catholic priests at Dachau concentration camp.

1942-1944: U.S. Chemical Warfare Service conducts mustard gas experiments on thousands of servicemen.

1942-1945: Malaria experiments at Dachau concentration camp on more than twelve hundred prisoners.

1943: Epidemic jaundice experiments at Natzweiler concentration camp.

1943-1944: Phosphorus burn experiments at Buchenwald concentration camp.

1944: Manhattan Project injection of 4.7 micrograms of plutonium into soldiers at Oak Ridge, TN.

1944: Seawater experiment on sixty Gypsies who were given only saltwater to drink at Dachau concentration camp.

1944-1946: University of Chicago Medical School professor Dr. Alf Alving conducts malaria experiments on more than 400 Illinois prisoners.

1945: Manhattan Project injection of plutonium into three patients at Billings Hospital at University of Chicago.

1945: Malaria experiment on 800 prisoners in Atlanta.

1946: Opening of Nuremberg Doctors Trial by U.S. Military Tribunal.

1945: Japanese troops blow up the headquarters of Unit 731 in final days of Pacific war. Ishii orders 150 remaining ''logs'' (i.e., human beings) killed to cover up their experimentation. Gen. Douglas MacArthur is named commander of the Allied powers in Japan.

1946: U.S. secret deal with Ishii and Unit 731 leaders cover up of germ warfare data based on human experimentation in exchange for immunity from war-crimes prosecution.

1946-1953: Atomic Energy Commission sponsored study conducted at the Fernald school in Massachusetts. Residents were fed Quaker Oats breakfast cereal containing radioactive tracers.

1946: Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word "experiments" to "investigations" or "observations" whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation's veteran's hospitals.

1947: Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.

1947: The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge.

1947: Judgment at Nuremberg Doctors Trial sets forth "Permissible Medical Experiments" i.e., the Nuremberg Code, which begins: "The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential."

1949: Intentional release of radiodine 131 and xenon 133 over Hanford Washington in Atomic Energy Commission field study called "Green Run."

1949: Soviet Union's war crimes trial of Dr. Ishii's associates (Japan).

1949-1953: Atomic Energy Commission studies of mentally disabled school children fed radioactive isotopes at Fernald and Wrentham schools.

1940s-1950s: "psychic driving" and "mental departterning" experiments conducted by Dr. Ewen Cameron, depriving patients of sleep, using massive ECT combined with psychoactive drugs such as, LSD. After his "treatments" patients were unable to function. In the 1950's Dr.Cameron's experiments were sponsored by the CIA.

1950: Dr. Joseph Stokes of the University of Pennsylvania infects 200 women prisoners with viral hepatitis.

1950: U.S. Army secretly used a Navy ship outside the Golden Gate to spray supposedly harmless bacteria over San Francisco and its outskirts. Eleven people were sickened by the germs, and one of them died.

1951-1960: University of Pennsylvania under contract with U.S. Army conducts psychopharmacological experiments on hundreds of Pennsylvania prisoners.

1952-1974: University of Pennsylvania dermatologist Dr. Albert Kligman conducts skin product experiments by the hundreds at Holmesburg Prison; "All I saw before me," he has said about his first visit to the prison, "were acres of skin."

1952: Henry Blauer injected with a fatal dose of mescaline at New York State Psychiatric Institute of Columbia University. U.S. Department of Defense, the sponsor, conspired to conceal evidence for 23 years.

1953 Newborn Daniel Burton rendered blind at Brooklyn Doctor's Hospital due to high oxygen study on RLF.

1953-1957: Oak Ridge (TN)-sponsored injection of uranium into eleven patients at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

1953-1960: CIA brainwashing experiments with LSD at eighty institutions on hundreds of subjects in a project code named "MK-ULTRA."

1953-1970: U.S. Army experiments with LSD on soldiers at Fort Detrick, Md.

1954-1974: U.S. Army study of 2,300 Seventh-Day Adventist soldiers in 157 experiments code named "Operation Whitecoat."

1950s - 1972: Mentally disabled children at Willowbrook School (NY) were deliberately infected with hepatitis in an attempt to find a vaccine. Participation in the study was a condition for admission to institution.

1956: Dr. Albert Sabin tests experimental polio vaccine on 133 prisoners in Ohio.

1958-1962: Spread of radioactive materials over Inupiat land in Point Hope, Alaska in Atomic Energy Commission field study code named "Project Chariot."

1962: Thalidomide withdrawn from the market after thousands of birth deformities blamed in part on misleading results of animal studies; the FDA thereafter requires three phases of human clinical trials before a drug can be approved for the market.

1962 to 1966, a total of 33 pharmaceutical companies tested 153 experimental drugs at Holmesburg prison (PA) alone.

1962-1980 Pharmaceutical companies conduct phase I safety testing of drugs almost exclusively on prisoners for small cash payments.

1962: Injection of live cancer cells into 22 elderly patients at Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in Brooklyn. Administration covered up, NYS licensing board placed the principal investigator on probation for one year. Two years later, American Cancer Society elected him Vice President.

1962: Stanley Milgram conducts obedience research at Yale University.

1963: NIH supported researcher transplants chimpanzee kidney into human in failed experiment.

1963-1973: Dr. Carl Heller, a leading endocrinologist, conducts testicular irradiation experiments on prisoners in Oregon and Washington giving them $5 a month and $100 when they receive a vasectomy at the end of the trial.

1964: World Medical Association adopts Helsinki Declaration, asserting "The interests of science and society should never take precedence over the well being of the subject."

 1965-1966: University of Pennsylvania under contract with Dow Chemical conducts dioxin experiments on prisoners at Holmesburg.

 1966: Henry Beecher's article "Ethics and Clinical Research" in New England Journal of Medicine.

 1966: U.S. Army introduces bacillus globigii into New York subway tunnels in field study.

 1966: NIH Office for Protection of Research Subjects ("OPRR") created and issues Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects calling for establishment of independent review bodies later known as Institutional Review Boards.

1967: British physician M.H. Pappworth publishes "Human Guinea Pigs," advising "No doctor has the right to choose martyrs for science or for the general good."

1969: Judge Sam Steinfield's eloquent dissent in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145, the first judicial suggestion that the Nuremberg Code should influence American jurisprudence.

1969. Milledgeville Georgia, investigational drugs tested on mentally disabled children. No institutional approval.

1969: San Antonio Contraceptive Study conducted on 70 poor Mexican-American women. Half received oral contraceptives the other placebo. No informed consent.

1973 Ad Hoc Advisory Panel issues Final Report of Tuskegee Syphilis Study, concluding "Society can no longer afford to leave the balancing of individual rights against scientific progress to the scientific community."

1974: National Research Act establishes National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects and requires Public Health Service to promulgate regulations for the protection of human subjects.  [[The NRA also mandated that then-Secretary of DHHS Casper Weinburger appoint a committee to determine the 'ethical principles the US government should use in dealing with the use of human subjects in research.  Thus the National Commission was established in 1975, consisting of 11 appointed members, only one (Art Caplan) with a Ph.D. in philosophy (ethics is a subfield of philosophy). (Caplan is now on the Board of Trustees of the transhumanist Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (IEET)). In 1978/9 the National Commission submitted its Belmont Report -- the formal 'birth of bioethics' -- denoting three ethical principles:  respect for persons (which was rapidly replaced by autonomy), justice and beneficence (all oddly defined).  The NRA also mandated that the Belmont Report be incorporated on the first page of the revised OPRR federal regulations (now OHRP), done in 1981.  In those OPRR federal regulations, the 'human embryo' is nowhere defined as a 'subject of research' or otherwise -- thus legally does not exist.  Two false scientific definitions are incorporated into those OPRR regulations:  both 'pregnancy and fetus' are mis-defined as 'beginning at implantation'.  Real natural normal pregnancy begins at fertilization in the woman's fallopian tube (not in her uterus), and the 'fetal period' doesn't really begin until the beginning of 9 weeks post-fertilization. Thus theoretically,  according to these federal regulations (still operative as the OHRP regulations), abortions, the use of abortifacients, human embryo flushing, research on all human embryos in vitro in IVF/ART facilities can be 'legally' performed through 8 weeks post-fertilization. The USCCB official who inserted these two false scientific definitions was Richard Doerflinger. Of course, these federal regulations would also allow for all the genetic engineering (including synthetic biology and nanotechnology) of human embryos -- in vivo or in vitro -- so popular today.  -- DNI]]

1975: The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) raised NIH's 1966 Policies for the Protection of Human subjects to regulatory status. Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations, known as "The Common Rule," requires the appointment and utilization of institutional review boards (IRBs).

1976: National Urban League holds National Conference on Human Experimentation, announcing "We don't want to kill science but we don't want science to kill, mangle and abuse us."

1978: Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.

1979: National Commission issues Belmont Report setting forth three basic ethical principles: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.

1980: The FDA promulgates 21 CFR 50.44 prohibiting use of prisoners as subjects in clinical trials shifting phase I testing by pharmaceutical companies to non-prison population.

1981: Leonard Whitlock suffers permanent brain damage after deep diving experiment at Duke University.

1986: Congressional subcommittee holds one-day hearing in Washington, called by Rep. Pat Williams of Montana, aimed at determining whether U.S. prisoners of war in Manchuria were victims of germ-warfare experimentation. Hearing is inconclusive.

1981-1996: Protocol 126 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle.

1987: Supreme Court decision in United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669, holding soldier given LSD without his consent could not sue U.S. Army for damages.

1987:" L-dopa challenge and relapse" experiment conducted on 28 U.S. veterans who were subjected to psychotic relapse for study purposes at the Bronx VA.

1990: The FDA grants Department of Defense waiver of Nuremberg Code for use of unapproved drugs and vaccines in Desert Shield.

1991: World Health Organization announces CIOMS Guidelines which set forth four ethical principles: respect for persons, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice.

1991: Tony LaMadrid commits suicide after participating in study on relapse of schizophrenics withdrawn from medication at UCLA.

1993: Kathryn Hamilton dies 44 days after participating in breast cancer experiment at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle.

1994. The Albuquerque Tribune publicizes 1940s experiments involving plutonium injection of human research subjects and secret radiation experiments. Indigent patients and mentally retarded children were deceived about the nature of their treatment.

1994. President Clinton appoints the Advisory Commission on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) The ACHRE Report http://tis.eh.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/index.html

1995. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published Human Radiation Experiments, listing 150 plus an additional 275 radiation experiments conducted by DOE and the Atomic Energy Commission, during the 1940s - 1970s. http://tis.eh.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/experiments/0491doca.html#0491_List

1995: 19-year-old University of Rochester student Nicole Wan dies after being paid $150 to participate in MIT-sponsored experiment to test airborne pollutant chemicals.

1995. President Clinton appoints the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.

1995: NYS Supreme Court rules (TD v NYS Office of Mental Health) against the state's policy of conducting nontherapeutic experiments on mentally incapacitated persons - including children - without informed consent. Justice Edward Greenfield ruled that parents have no authority to volunteer their children: "Parents may be free to make martyrs of themselves, but it does not follow that they may make martyrs of their children."

1995: Thirty-four healthy, previously non-aggressive New York City minority children, boys aged 6 to 11 years old, were exposed to fenfluramine in a nontherapeutic experiment at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. The children were exposed to this neurotoxic drug to record their neurochemical response in an effort to prove a speculative theory linking aggression to a biological marker.

1996. Cleveland Plain Dealer investigative report series, 'Drug Trials: Do People Know the Truth About Experiments,' December 15 to 18, 1996. The Plain-Dealer found: of the "4,154 FDA inspections of researchers testing new drugs on people [since 1977] . . . more than half the researchers were cited by FDA inspectors for failing to clearly disclose the experimental nature of their work."

1996: Yale University researchers publish findings of experiment that subjected 18 stable schizophrenia patients to psychotic relapse in an amphetamine provocation experiment at West Haven VA.

1997. President Clinton issues a formal apology to the subjects of the Tuskegee syphilis experiments. NBAC continues investigation into genetics, consent, privacy, and research on persons with mental disorders.

1997. Researchers at the University of Cincinnati publish findings of experiment attempting to create a "psychosis model" on human beings at the Cincinnati VA. Sixteen patients, experiencing a first episode schizophrenia, were subjected to repeated provocation with amphetamine. The stated purpose was to produce "behavioral sensitization. This process serves as a model for the development of psychosis, but has been little studied in humans. Symptoms, such as severity of psychosis and eye-blink rates, were measured hourly for 5 hours."

1997. U.S. government sponsored placebo-controlled experiment withholds treatment from HIV infected, pregnant African women. NY Times, Sept. 18.

1997. Victims of unethical research at major U.S. medical centers - including the NIMH - testify before the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Sept. 18.

1997. FDA Modernization Act gives pharmaceutical companies a huge financial incentive - a 6 month patent exclusivity extension - if they conduct drug tests on children. The incentive can yield $900 million.

1998. National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) Report. Research Involving Subjects with Mental Disorders That May Affect Decisionmaking Capacity. November 12,

1998 http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/capacity/TOC.htm

1998: The Japanese government has never formally apologized for Unit 731's activities, and did not even admit to its existence until August 1998, when the Supreme Court ruled that the existence of the unit was accepted in academic circles.

1998. Complaint filed with OPRR about experiments that exposed non-violent children in New York City to fenfluramine to find a predisposition to violence.

1998: Boston Globe (four part) series, "Doing Harm: Research on the Mentally Ill" shed light on the mistreatment and exploitation of schizophrenia patients who have been subjected to relapse producing procedures in unethical experiments.

1999: Nine month-old Gage Stevens dies at Children's Hospital in Pittsburgh during participation in Propulsid clinical trial for infant acid reflux.

1999: 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger dies after being injected with 37 trillion particles of adenovirus in gene therapy experiment at University of Pennsylvania.

1999: Director of National Institute of Mental Health suspends 29 clinical trials that failed to meet either ethical or scientific standards.

2000: University of Oklahoma melanoma trial halted for failure to follow government regulations and protocol.

2000: OPRR becomes Office of Human Research Protection ("OHRP") and made part of the Department of Health and Human Services.

2000: President Clinton implements the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Act of 2000, which authorized compensation for thousands of Department of Energy workers who sacrificed their health in building the nation's nuclear defenses.

2000: The Washington Post (6 part) series, "Body Hunters" exposes unethical exploitation in experiments conducted by U.S. investigators in underdeveloped countries. Part 4 dealt with U.S. government funded, genetic experiments conducted by Harvard University in rural China.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A26797-2000Dec19.html

2001: A biotech company in Pennsylvania asks the FDA for permission to conduct placebo trials on infants in Latin America born with serious lung disease though such tests would be illegal in U.S.

2001: Ellen Roche, a healthy 27-year old volunteer, dies in challenge study at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

2001: April 4, Elaine Holden-Able, a healthy retired nurse, consumed a glass of orange juice that had been mixed with a dietary supplement for the sake of medical research. This Case Western University Alzheimer's experiment, financed by the tobacco industry, wound up killing her in what was called a ''tragic human error.'' Federal Office of Human Research Protections did not interview hospital staff, mostly accepted hospital's internal report, imposed no penalty, and closed the case and did not mention the death in its letter of determination. http://ohrp.osophs.dhhs.gov/detrm_letrs/nov01f.pdf

2001: Maryland Court of Appeals renders a landmark decision affirming "best interest of the individual child" as a standard for medical research involving children. The Court unequivocally prohibited nontherapeutic experimentation on children. (Higgins and Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute).The case involved exposure of babies and small children to lead poisoning in EPA funded experiment. (http://www.courts.state.md.us/opinions/coa/2001/128a00.pdf)

 

 


Note:  A very sobering chronology of unethical human research -- at least such that was reported -- well worth contemplating -- especially now that even our federal agencies are pushing to do away with the 'informed consent' requirement as the only way to get 'data';  see, e.g.: 

**Medical Research Stakeholders Seek to Overturn Informed Consent Protections;  Part 3 of 4, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/928/9/

**Medical Research Stakeholders Seek to Overturn Informed Consent Protections;  Part 2 of 4, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/927/81/

**Another View Academics for Informed Consent, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/926/99/

**Medical Research Stakeholders Seek to Overturn Informed Consent Protection;  Part 1 of 4, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/925/81/

**OHRP Caves Under SUPPORT Pressure Re: oxygen experiment tiny premature babies, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/924/81/

Note especially the unethical research pre-World War II through 2001 -- all performed supposedly for 'beneficent, altruistic or 'national security' reasons, mostly by government agencies, esteemed academic medical facilities, prominent investigators, pharmaceutical companies -- mostly without 'informed consent' or the victims' knowledge, on vulnerable children, prisoners, the elderly, mentally ill and retarded, political and ethnic opponents, Third World populace, etc.  Given the current explosion of especially genetic and genetic engineering research -- and the concomitant explosion of scientific fraud and unethical experiments -- all need to be aware of these very disturbing precedents.  'Data' at any cost.  'Bioethics' would approve most of this as being 'for the greater good'.  However, there are other 'ethics' insisting that 'the ends never justify the means'.  See especially 1974, above.  Please read carefully, all the way through to the end.  I bet you won't be able to.  Note:  'VA' used above usually refers to 'Veterans Administration'.  . -- DNI]



Just-Discovered Letter Shows Margaret Sanger Was Part of Euthanasia Society

by Carole Novielli

 

In 1938, just a few years prior to the American Birth Control League (ABCL) changing its name to Planned Parenthood, which today is the largest abortion provider in the nation, a group of American Eugenics Society Members and members of Margaret Sanger's American Birth Control League (ABCL) formed the National Society for the Legalization of Euthanasia.

One Source here

Heading this pro-euthanasia panel was a man by the name of Charles F. Potter who, in 1938 was also on the ABCL Committee for Planned Parenthood according to a February 1938, New York Times story.

Also on this board was Sidney Goldstein who sat on the American Birth Control League's National Council and later was on Planned Parenthood's Board of Directors.

Another member was Frank H. Hankins who was a managing editor for Planned Parenthood founder, Margaret Sanger's newsletter called the Birth Control Review. Hankins was also an American Eugenics Society member.
Another more famous name who was sat on the advisory board of this panel was Julian Huxley, who was a recipient of a Planned Parenthood award.
Mrs. F. Robertson Jones was also on this panel, she was an ABCL President, wrote for Sanger's Birth Control Review, and was an honorary board member of Planned Parenthood-World Population and a Board of Director of Planned Parenthood.

ABCL Citizen's Committee for Planned Parenthood member, Dr. Foster Kennedy, was also on the panel.

American Eugenics Society Member, Clarence Cook Little was the President of Margaret Sanger's American Birth Control League (ABCL), at the same time he was on this pro-euthanasia panel.

Clarence Little was the president of the University of Michigan, a founding member of The American Eugenics Society, and a board member of the American Birth Control League which would later be known as Planned Parenthood. (Watch Maafa21)

American Eugenics Society founder and friend to Margaret Sanger, Leon Whitney, also sat on this panel. Whitney advocated forced sterilization, was published in Sanger' Birth Control Review, and openly praised Adolf Hitler for his Nazi effort.

MARGARET SANGER AND EUTHANASIA

It is unclear why Planned Parenthood founder, Margaret Sanger was not listed on the above article because Sanger was clearly involved in the Euthanasia Society. Sanger was a member of the American Eugenics Society and many of their members were on this panel. Sanger admitted that she gave a speech to the Klu Klu Klan and in her autobiography, she bragged that she received a dozen invites from the Klan for further speeches. By 1952, Margaret Sanger was open about her belief in Euthanasia.

This 1952 letter from the Euthanasia Society of America clearly shows Margret Sanger on the American Advisory Board of the Euthanasia Society of America

In addition to Margaret Sanger who founded Planned Parenthood the panel also shows Henry P. Fairchild a past president of the American Eugenics Society, a VP of Planned Parenthood;
See here where Sanger is listed as Honorary Chairman of Planned Parenthood in their early years:
Also listed is Harry Emerson Fosdick, who was a recipient of the Albert Lasker Awards Given by Planned Parenthood in 1953.  Henry H. Goddard is also listed and he was published in Margaret Sanger's book, The Case for Birth Control.

Also on the list is Samuel H Holmes. According to the film, Maafa21, in a 1929 speech, American eugenicist Samuel Holmes had proposed that mandatory birth control should be used as a tool to eliminate what he called the menace to the white race that had been created by increases in black population. His solution was to have a quota system in which the right to have a child would be controlled by the government and determined by race. At the time, Holmes was on the National Council of the American Birth Control League which would later become known as Planned Parenthood.

Frank L, Babbott is listed as a Vice President of this Euthanasia Society. Babbott was a founding member of the American Eugenics Society.

Frank H. Hankins  is listed on the Board of Director his associations are listed above.

Clarence C . Little is also listed on the board of directors. Clarence Little was the president of the University of Michigan, a founding member of The American Eugenics Society, and a board member of the American Birth Control League which would later be known as Planned Parenthood. He was President of the International Fed of Birth Control League, Birth Control Federation President, on the Birth Control review editorial board, A Birth Control Federation of America VP, and on the 1938 Citizen Committee for Planned Parenthood. Among other known Sanger associations.

Charles Francis Potter was founder of the Humanist Society and in 1924 Margaret Sanger wrote an Introduction for Charles Francis Potter. Potter was active in the Rhode Island Maternal Health Association, which he served as medical director, as well as Planned Parenthood. He was a member of the American, Rhode Island, and Providence medical societies.

In 1967, Dr. Potter was awarded the Margaret Sanger Medal by Planned Parenthood for outstanding service to family planning, after he served 11 years as medical director of its clinic.

President of the Euthanasia Society was Mrs. F Robertson Jones who was also on Margaret Sanger's ABCL board.  We would later discover that RL Dickinson was President of the Euthanasia Society and Senior VP of Planned Parenthood Federation of America.

In 2012 PETER GOODWIN, MD ended his life in accordance with Oregon's Measure 16 'Death with Dignity Act,' the landmark legislation that he helped craft and champion into law in 1997.  Aside from publicly advocating for Measure 16, he served as chairman of the Oregon Death with Dignity Committee. He was also a member of the Planned Parenthood of Columbia/Willamette board.

In 1964, Evelyn Ames co-founded the Planned Parenthood Association of Nashville. She served as the organization's southeastern representative for nine southern states, and on the executive committee of the national board of directors of Planned Parenthood-World Population. She was also a founder and member of the board of the Nashville chapter of Concern for Dying, an advocacy group for the right to die. Ames Davis died in 1993.

Esther Instebo delivered donations and filled fundraiser tables for Planned Parenthood and Washington politicians. Instebo pulled her friends into Democratic Party politics. Instebo worked with the euthanasia organization Compassion & Choices to qualify for help in dying under the state's Death with Dignity law. Knowing that she had that option greatly improved the quality of the last six months of her life because she knew she wouldn't have to put up with what she was afraid of.

According to researcher, Rita Dillar, when Compassion & Choices, formerly The Hemlock Society, convened its June 2012 conference, former Planned Parenthood insider Theresa Connor was a featured speaker. She was public policy director for Planned Parenthood in Washington state for 15 years and instituted the research and strategy behind the 2001 Erickson v. Bartell case that required employers/ insurance plans to cover prescription birth control under anti-discrimination laws.

It is interesting how Margaret Sanger, founded in Eugenics, the American Eugenics Society, and members of the Planned Parenthood all helped establish euthanasia and so-called mercy-killing ideologies in America. The purveyors of death have taken their fanaticism all the way from conception to end of life and no one is outside their bloody grips.



{British royal family physician Dr. Horder oversaw the entire Nazi medical program, and was president of the British Eugenics Society from 1935 - 1950s, and president of the Voluntary Euthanasia Society.  The U.S. branch was called the American Eugenics Society.  In 1938 a group of American Eugenics Society Members and members of Margaret Sanger's American Birth Control League (ABCL) formed the National Society for the Legalization of Euthanasiahttp://www.lifenews.com/2014/04/02/just-discovered-letter-shows-margaret-sanger-was-part-of-euthanasia-society/.  In 1952 the American Eugenics Society merged with the Rockefeller Population Council.  This Eugenics/Population Council awarded a grant in 1968 to Daniel Callahan (with ex-Communist behavioral psychiatrist Willard Gaylin) to found the first bioethics Hastings Center in 1969Callahan worked also with the Population Council, and was on the board of directors of the American Eugenics Society from 1987 - 1993.  Leading bioethics fellows included Peter Singer, and Ezekiel Emanuel (Obama's administration)

A major funder of the new bioethics Hastings Center was Monsanto   [http://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/topic/excellence_in_philanthropy/philanthropys_brave_new_world].  Another organization birthed out of the American Eugenics Society was Planned Parenthood, headed by William Gates, father of Bill Gates. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation currently funds the use of midwives in Indonesia to improve access to family planning.  [http://www.impatientoptimists.org/Posts/2014/01/Midwives-Critical-Players-in-Delivering-Family-Planning-in-Indonesia],  as do WHO, UNFPA, UNICEF, and the World Bank  [http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9241545879_eng.pdf] -- and the Population Council  [http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/population-control-advocates-plan-to-expand-abortion-through-midwives].  The Population Council works hard to provide 'safe abortions' around the globe  [http://www.popcouncil.org/research/safe-abortion-and-postabortion-care].

The Gates Foundation has also long been involved in vaccines, pharmaceuticals, GMOs, reproductive control, weather manipulation, global warming, etc.  Bill Gates, purchased 500,000 shares in Monsanto back in 2010 valued at more than $23 million, now has a direct interest in seeing Monsanto succeed in spreading GMOs around the world  [http://www.naturalnews.com/035105_Bill_Gates_Monsanto_eugenics.html].  More recently Monsanto is partnering with various synthetic biology pharma organizations   [http://www.marketwatch.com/story/cellectis-compact-talentm-the-next-generation-of-tal-effector-nucleases-2013-05-21 - DNI}

LifeNews Note: Carole Novielli is the author of the blog Saynsumthn, where this article originally appeared.








A Duty to Die

by Phill Kline

The perfect storm in support of the Culture of Death has arrived. Consumerism, self-indulgence, the worship of government, stardom and economic crisis is poised to transform the Shining City on the Hill into a death camp. The nation founded on the principle that all human life has value ordained by God is adopting a utilitarian view of life that casts aside the voiceless, defenseless, broken, disabled, diseased, unborn and elderly. The Land of Plenty is fast becoming a land where government shall ration its plenty only to those who it perceives add value, creating a duty to die for those who government perceives lessen value. We are losing our way.

The Culture of Death - (a) A health care bill introduced by House Democrats forces the elderly to attend consults regarding the withholding of food and water for the chronically ill; and (b) President Obama and the Democrat congressional leadership is attempting to force all Americans to pay for abortions and all hospitals to provide abortions.

Abortion has always claimed "choice" and "liberty" as its driving value. The same with Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. Yet, at its core, both are about a belief that there is not enough compassion, not enough love, not enough money, not enough life to share. We do not want to face those who by their condition awaken our conscience to our duty to provide for such needs. We'd rather they die.

The most common reason for an abortion is fear of the impact a child will have on the future of the mother, father or parents of the mother. The top reason for assisted suicide is fear of becoming a burden on another.

Abortion is not about the "life" of the mother, nor is assisted suicide about eliminating physical pain as both concerns can be addressed without loss of life.. Rather, euthanasia and abortion are about America's increasing fear that bears the fruit of stinginess through lack of faith.

We are becoming a self-indulgent culture demanding immediate answers to life's intractable problems and thanks to an obsessive media focus, casting our hopes and eyes constantly towards government for answers. This is why government is constantly growing, regardless of which political party holds the keys - both parties have learned that promoting false solutions through government action appeals to America's demands for answers. Government plies our fears, creating false hope and doing so by our political wannabes warrants TV time with the talking heads resulting in Stardom. In government, you do not generate power by depowering government.

Government already dictates much in the medical industry. Medicare and Medicaid are now the largest player in the health care market providing 46 cents of every health care dollar spent in America. Private insurance provides 42 cents of every dollar and the remaining 12 cents comes from consumers through out-of-pocket expenditures.

Markets are intelligent - they know where their money comes from! As a result, as government has increased its play in the market - those who earn in the health care market have turned their eyes on government. Increasingly, physicians, medical manufacturers and hospitals have moved away from protecting free market principles and moved towards demanding more from government.

Professional associations representing these groups have demanded increased government payouts for various procedures and services. Increasingly, they have become employees of government - not directly responsive to patient needs or demands. And put simply, they want a pay raise.

Politicians recognize the political truism that you gain a more loyal following by passing out dollar bills than allowing people to keep their own money: dependency is a great source of power. Honoring this truism grows government - creating ever more powerful constituencies that protect every government dollar spent.

The loss of these constituencies commitment to free market principles has been devasting and increasingly resulted in physician decisions being dictated by government formularies - government reimbursement pay formulas for certain medical services and equipment. These pay formulas are the new values driving decisions in medical care. And now, the primary articulator of these values - government - is ready to pomote a claim of value in death.

A child that is unwanted and uneeded - is simply a burden. Abort it! The elderly - more of a drain than a benefit - encourage physician assisted suicide.

The President's new health care bill will mandate your participation in abortion. And a new "reform" bill introduced in the US House by Representatives John Dingell (D-Michigan) and Charlie Rangel (D-New York) creates government mandated death consultants who will encourage the elderly and disabled to choose death.

In 1985, withholding fluid and nutrition from a patient unable to feed himself or herself was considered criminal. Afterall, we are unable to feed ourselves at numerous stages of life and if we were not in the process of dying, someone wihtholding fluids and food was denying what was considered humane care.

Such care is not medical treatment it is an act of compassion. Yet, with high profile court cases in numerous states and the trend towards death and a rationing of care - in 1986, the American Medical Association for the first time defined the provision of food and water as "medical treatment." The impact is monumental. Medical treatment can be withheld, humane care cannot.

Death by dehydration is brutal and lengthy.  It is accomplished with dozens of people standing by who, with simple effort, can sustain a life they watch wither, suffer and die.

And now in the Dingell/Rangel bill, the government will get into the act. Under Subtitle C - "Miscellaneous Improvements" beginning on page 420 of the 1,018 page bill, the government would mandate under Section 1233 what it terms "Advance Care Planning Consultation."

The consultation requires reviewing with all medicare patients the options of withholding care, including providing information on "the use of artificially administered nutrients and hydration."

There is not a need to educate patients about the need of hydration and nutrients. All of us have lived with that need all of our lives. We obtain it - or we die. This provision is there to encourage a pre-determination of death by neglect in order to, as the bill's title suggests, "provide affordable health care."

The proposed law takes the next step and requires these death consultations when a patient and family are most vulnerable. The consultations are to take place "if there is a significant change in the health condition of the individual, including the diagnosis of a chronic, progressive, life-limiting disease."

This sets up the dynamic for withholding food and water due to non-life threatening conditions. Further, it invites a patient, if conversant, to make a decision about their future during an ultimate time of stress.

This language invites an approach similar to Oregon's assisted suicide legislation, which was sold as a "compassionate" way out for those terminally ill and in constant pain. This was and is a lie.

Studies indicate that none of the 43 who were assisted in their suicides during the first two years of that legislation were facing such problems. The overwhelming concern was being a burden on family and requiring assistance in daily living.

Just as abortion plays on the fears of frightened mothers, euthanasia plays on the fears of frightened seniors and the disabled.

Further, the bill establishes a special government study called the "physician's quality reporting initiative" which will create special government funded "patient decision aids" and government consultation groups to assist paitents in understanding these issues.

These committees will represent different disciplines but with one commonality - all will be paid by government. And government is interested in saving "costs."

The only thing that breaks this cycle is principled leadership or Americans demanding principled action. Americans, however, are increasingly being taught that liberty is a frightening concept - it requires initiative and exists in a state of uncertainty. Today, there is the ever-present temptation to trade liberty for a false sense of security. This has happened with health care.

Health care is now government business and as with all those who pay the bill, government is attempting to cut costs and this means rationing - choosing one over the other. This is one of the main threads of the hidden debate on health care. Proponents of government making such choices are struggling to find the right Orwellian terms to confuse or mislead the American public.

At least Princeton University Professor Peter Singer, although confused, was blunt and direct in the July 19th edition of the NY Times Sunday Magazine. Professor Singer argues that such rationing is logical. Singer is right - it is. The crux, however, is who makes the choice of rationing and whose values are reflected in that decision. Singer and President Obama support government making these decisions.

Singer writes "(r)ationing health care means getting value for the billions we are spending by setting limits on which treatments should be paid for...." And Singer invites us to answer the following problem as an example: "saving the life of one teenager is equivalent to saving the lives of___ 85 year-olds."[ix] Or how about, preserving the quality of life of one adult is worth the lives of how many unborn? Or, saving the life of___ university professors is worth the life of___ unemployed steel workers? (Prof. Singer probably does not want to put that one up for a vote). You can see the problem.

Families make difficult choices of rationing every day - saving for college, purchasing a new and safer car, enhancing savings, moving to a new home, determining health care costs. Increasingly, government is making these decisions for us through the coercive impact of law or through tax code encouragement. This loss of liberty has profound implications. The government solution scheme incrementally replaces opportunity with government promises, diminishes personal accountability creating government inefficiencies and more ominously, invites government dictates in the cause of controlling costs.

And now President Obama is attempting to have government dictate abortion in the name of "choice." Soon, you government may be dictating the duty to die to the disabled, sick and elderly in the cause of universal health care.

Accordingly, the President and Democrat congressional leadership are trying to force through mandated health insurance coverage for abortion and the mandatory provision of abortion services for all Americans as well. All Americans will be forced into health insurance plans that include abortion coverage - forcing all Americans to pay for abortions through their premiums.

It is in these battles that we will define ourselves as a nation and a people.


{Phill Kline is the former Kansas Attorney General and now a visiting law professor in Virginia. His web site is http://www.standwithTruth.com - Ed.)