Municipal Waste Combustion Management for a Cleaner Environment

by Allen Williams


As government regulations continue to play an increased role in the nation's economy, there is a demand for cheaper energy sources to promote economic growth.  

America is committing vast land resources for the storage of Industrial and residential waste.  Municipalities must contract out or arrange for waste  transportation to landfill sites which amount to vast quantities of energy buried.  

Municipal waste is a growing problem in both rural and urban communities across the United States. Toxins are leached from the materials in the landfill over time that potentially threaten the water supply and many of today's modern components take centuries to decay in the earth. Landfills contain Combustible materials that could provide low cost energy for cities as well as improve the environment.

Photo: Land fill space a growing problem../

The average American now discards approximately 16-20 pounds of solid waste per day per person. This waste has traditionally been disposed of in landfills, which require huge tracts of land and have finite storage capacity.  Many landfills will have to close by 2040, increasing the cost of trash disposal and preventing the land from more productive use.

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has noted that the energy content of solid waste in landfills has been steadily rising over the last decade, hitting 11.73 million Btu/ton in 2005. The heat content of interred waste provides the basis for developing an engineered fuel supporting many industrial applications such as the production of hydrocarbons, solvents, motor fuels, and even electric power generation.

A 2010 study(3) has found that emissions from landfills versus municipal waste combustion using EPA's life cycle assessment (LCA) model for the range and scenarios evaluated, that waste combustion outperforms land filling in terms of Green House Gas emissions regardless of landfill gas management techniques.

Innovative technologies can use buried waste as energy to convert bio-waste into needed products.  Recently, Sweden's 144 million Kristianstad biogas plant has successfully converted municipal bio-waste into methane for use in automobiles and heating, saving some $3.5 million per year. Biogas can be further processed to produce organic liquids and even motor grade fuels.

Municipal Waste can be converted into fuel pellets with combustion performance comparable to coal. The solid waste can be processed with an engineered heat content amenable to fluidized bed and other furnace combustion equipment.  Optimally, the pellets could be manufactured to a specific heat content. This is accomplished by feeding shredded rubber from scrap tires into a Cuber machine to produce fuel cubes of very high heating value, approximately 10,000 to 12,000 Btu/lb, suitable for utility power generation.

Developing a plan

The rising level of municipal waste provides incentive to develop alternative fuels but municipal waste contains many non-combustible components, some of which possess considerable recycle value. Recovery of these materials help to defer the cost of producing an engineered heat content fuel.  Figure 1 illustrates the potential economic return based on EPA waste content.

Figure 1 - Salvageable Materials And Byproducts Revenue

Locating a suitable waste transformation plant directly on a Landfill site saves added costs for property and waste transportation to a site as trucks are already servicing the  facility.  In natural gas producing landfills, a cheap supply of methane for hydrocarbon synthesis is readily available.

In cases where a bio-gas facility such as Johnson County Wastewater may be nearby, combustible waste sludge can be transported via pipeline for fueling a suitable fluidized bed boiler. The pipeline can pay for itself quickly as only the installation cost from the wastewater facility to the landfill need be considered.  Additionally, Industrial solvents such as methanol and other light hydrocarbons can be produced from the readily available methane feedstock along with steam and or electricity. 

Waste Site Considerations

An ideal plant site would be an 850-acre landfill of which approximately 770 acres are used for solid waste internment. Road infrastructure would already exist to handle the associated truck waste transport traffic. Only small infrastructure changes would be needed to support an onsite waste processing facility.

Waste transport vehicles would contain an average of 11 tons of municipal trash and make 1 to 3 trips per day to the site depending on weather and other factors. The landfill could receive as much as 5000 tons of trash per day, averaging nearly 19 trucks per hour.

Engineered fuels could be manufactured from this solid refuse on approximately 5 of the remaining 70 plus acres. The solid waste would be screened to remove various metals and other non-combustible materials before processing into specified heat content fuels.

Waste Separation process

Figure two illustrates dual waste handling units separating typical recyclable materials, shredding and blending recovered solids and vehicle tires from the municipal waste to produce a serviceable fuel pellet.  It is a time and motion illustration of the effort required to produce a 24% blend of solid waste and rubber.  The chart was developed from a real waste processing pilot operation by RCR Partners of Colorado during the early 1980's.

Since that time computer model studies have shown that a 50-50 waste blend of solids and scrap tires provided a better heat content fuel at 10,221 Btu/lb suitable for a small industrial boiler consuming approximately 30 tons of fuel pellets per hour.  The 50-50 blend represents only an incremental change in processing times.

The 2010 RCR industries salvageable Materials and Byproducts chart documents recovery revenues that are used to offset the cost of manufacturing an engineered fuel which is the basis of the Figure 2 chart.  From this study, recyclable materials savings, operating and labor costs can be estimated.

Figure 2 - Solids Separation and Fuel Pellet manufacture


RCR Material Flow

Bags enter the breaker machine from the truck where large boxes and bags are opened without damaging the contents. This permits the separation of light and heavy components. Food waste is removed prior to mechanical separation.

The solid waste moves through three mechanical separators upon entering the waste handling facility to remove glass, metal cans and plastic. Separation efficiency is greater than 90%.

Material next enters the first of two identical separators, all components less than 1-½” size pass through the first separator and are collected together with any metals in a common bin. These materials require further processing to segregate glass and metal

Separator No 3 removes all fractions less than 3" x 8”. Plastics fall into a collection bin exiting the 3rd separator.

The remaining material enters the shredder and is now all light fraction material.

The shredder slices the solid waste into approximately a ¾” size. The material passes through a cyclone separator to remove any dust generated by the shredding operation. The material can then be moistened and compressed by a Cuber machine into approximately 1-1/2" x 2" size fuel pellets.

The pellets may then be conveyed to storage vessels.

Photo: Fuel Pellets conveyed to Storage


Economics

Company reports are often good sources of economic cost data. Our fuel processing cost is estimated from an RCR Partners pilot plant study for the year's 1982-'83. The ordinary expense average for these years was $2,308,500 per year and defines the fixed costs. The Jan. '84 - Mar. '11 inflation rate was 146.7%, adjusting the ordinary expenses to present costs gives $5,694,244 per year.

The following utility rates were used in the economic evaluation: Coal at $55.00/ton, electricity at 7.3 cents per kilowatt, plant water for 3.2 cents a gallon and engineered fuel expenses according to the following cost relation.  Fuel Cost/(ton) = X% * fixed cost + (1-X)% * rubber + processing

The base rate is calculated from the total production cost minus the revenue from salvageable materials separated out during the manufacturing process, i.e.  [$Cost - $Salvage]/Total Tons = $Cost/ton

The salvageable material quantities from waste separation that can be re-sold are indicated in figures 1and 2.  Ferrous metal scrap pays a max of $250/ton, Aluminum $0.75/lb and plastics $150/ton.  Salvageable tire steel belt is 2.5 lbs/tire:

Details of computer simulated quantities and expected margins in the production of an organic solvent using engineered fuel pellets may be found in the July 2012 issue of Chemical Engineering, Vol 119, No. 7


Conclusions

One of the most significant features of engineered fuels is the ability to reduce the quantity of sulfur that must be scrubbed out of atmospheric releases during combustion.  In our simulation, the computer model predicted a 20.67% reduction in SO2 emissions..

Mercury is virtually eliminated from stack gas emissions and other airborne contaminants can be significantly reduced through controlled waste blending.

Combusting Municipal waste in a controlled environment not only alleviates the need for further land repositories but may also facilitate recovery of burnable materials from many existing landfills.

Literature Cited:


1. "Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy", Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S., May 2007 Report

2. “Evaluating Green Projects – Modeling Improves Economic Benefits”, A. Williams, K. Dunwoody, Chemical Engineering – 119, 7, July 2012

3.   "Life-Cycle Assessment of Waste Management Greenhouse Gas Emissions Using Municipal Waste Combustor Data", J. Envir. Engr. 136, 749 (2010); doi:10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000189 (7 pages),Brian Bahor, Michael Van Brunt, P.E., Keith Weitz, and Andrew Szurgot

4. "Multisolid Fluidized Bed Combustion", H. Nack, R.D. Litt, B.C. Kim, Chemical Engineering Progress, Jan 1984

5. "Energy Recovery from Fluidized Bed Combustion", Robert J. Sneyd, Chemical Engineering Progress, Jan 1984

6. "Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy", Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, May 2007 Report


Deadly Medicine Creating the Master Race

by John Carlos Cantu           


U-M Taubman Health Sciences Library exhibit presents a chilling look at Nazi ideology.

The 1938 words of Dr. Joseph Goebbels, Nazi minister of propaganda, stand above the display panels of what is undoubtedly the most somber exhibit Ann Arbor has seen at the University of Michigan Taubman Health Sciences Library.  Goebbel’s quote runs as follows: “Our starting point is not the individual, and we do not subscribe to the view that one should feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty, or clothe the naked…. Our objectives are entirely different: We must have a healthy people in order to prevail in the world.” 

These words are chilling and they’re more than an adequate rationale for this heart-rending investigation into a politics that sought to implement one of the most perverse policies in history. 

As Mary Beth Reilly, writer for the U-M’s Center for the History of Medicine, says in the display’s gallery statement, “The Nazi regime was founded upon the conviction that ‘inferior races’ and individuals had to be eliminated from German society so that the fittest ‘Aryans’ could thrive. 

“By the end of World War II, six million Jews and millions of others—among them Roma and Sinti (Gypsies), people with disabilities, homosexuals, and others belonging to ethnic groups deemed inferior—had been persecuted and murdered.”  And as Alexandra Minna Stern, Zina Pitcher Collegiate Professor of the History of Medicine and Associate Director of the Center for the History of Medicine at the U-M Medical School, adds, “The exhibition is a visually powerful experience for viewers that shows how the doctrine of racial hygiene was taken to its most heinous extremes.” 

Indeed. And as the exhibit pointedly illustrates, there’s more than enough blame to go around. For the exhibit begins with a panel illustrating the various programs from countries around the world (including the United States) advocating various eugenic schemes at the turn of the 20th century whose “racial hygiene” included programs in population policy, public health education, and government-funded research whose ends (even if they weren’t remotely the same) clearly showed an undeniable bias.  

The rediscovery of Austrian botanist Gregor Mendel’s genetics experiments in 1900 coupled with the increasingly fashionable “Social Darwinism” of British philosopher cum sociologist Herbert Spencer, whose catchphrase “survival of the fittest” was being bandied about, led to increasing public prestige in the efforts to stabilize public policy issues that emerged with increasing industrialization and urbanization. This was, in retrospect, a philosophical and political slippery slope that was in part absorbed in the ideology and practice of the newly emergent Nazi party of the 1920s. 

From the early 1930s through the balance of the Nazi regime, there were repeated campaigns to rid German society of what they viewed as biological threats. As “Deadly Medicine” clearly shows, this policy absorbed the efforts and energies of many of the nation’s most talented doctors, psychiatrists, anthropologists, and medically trained geneticists, as well as social planners and party functionaries at every level.  [And soon to be repeated in the form of Obamacare - ED] 

What started as a secret campaign to eliminate the weak and infirm disguised as medical assistance metastasized into a full-fledge program of eradication under the pressure of World War II. Ultimately, this so-called “sanitary campaign” finally took form as a genocide that we now know as the Holocaust, resulting in the near total annihilation of Europe’s Jewish population. 

To its credit, “Deadly Medicine” doesn’t pull any punches. Its juxtaposition of scientific certitude and racial hatred are handled as responsibly as the topics deserve. 

By naming names, dates, and events—as well as providing significant visual evidence—the exhibit takes the full measure of this circumstance where those in charge of healing and sustenance distorted their responsibilities until their lifework turned into a horror whose pain continues to this day.  

It’s certainly enough pain for Professor Stern to remind us that the example of this massive failure of science, technology, tolerance, and ultimately compassion, “raises weighty questions about the potential benefits and harms of genetic and reproductive technologies today.” And it’s on this cautionary note that the solemn exhibit rightfully concludes.

 

 




“It’s certainly enough pain for Professor Stern to remind us that the example of this massive failure of science, technology, tolerance, and ultimately compassion, “raises weighty questions about the potential benefits and harms of genetic and reproductive technologies today.” And it’s on this cautionary note that the solemn exhibit rightfully concludes.”  The article first appeared here. - DNI


Human Experiments: A Chronology of Human Research

by Vera Hassner Shara


6th century B.C.: Meat and vegetable experiment on young Jewish prisoners in Book of Daniel.

5th century B.C: "Primum non nocere" ("First do no harm"), medical ethics standard attributed to Hippocrates. This Oath became obligatory for physicians prior to practicing medicine in the 4th century AD

1st century B.C. Cleopatra devised an experiment to test the accuracy of the theory that it takes 40 days to fashion a male fetus fully and 80 days to fashion a female fetus. When her handmaids were sentenced to death under government order, Cleopatra had them impregnated and subjected them to subsequent operations to open their wombs at specific times of gestation. [http://www.jlaw.com/Articles/NaziMedExNotes.html#1]

12th century: Rabbi and physician Maimonides' Prayer: "May I never see in the patient anything but a fellow creature in pain."

1796 Edward Jenner injects healthy eight-year-old James Phillips first with cowpox then three months later with smallpox and is hailed as discoverer of smallpox vaccine.

1845-1849: J. Marion Sims, "the father of gynecology" performed multiple experimental surgeries on enslaved African women without the benefit of anesthesia. After suffering unimaginable pain, many lost their lives to infection. One woman was made to endure 34 experimental operations for a prolapsed uterus. http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/jm_sims.htm

1865: French physiologist Claude Bernard publishes "Introduction to the Study of Human Experimentation," advising: "Never perform an experiment which might be harmful to the patient even though highly advantageous to science or the health of others."

1896: Dr. Arthur Wentworth performed spinal taps on 29 children at Children's Hospital, Boston, to determine if the procedure was harmful. Dr. John Roberts of Philadelphia, noting the non-therapeutic indication, labeled Wentworth's procedures "human vivisection."

1897: Italian bacteriologist Sanarelli injects five subjects with bacillus searching for a causative agent for yellow fever.

1900: Walter Reed injects 22 Spanish immigrant workers in Cuba with the agent for yellow fever paying them $100 if they survive and $200 if they contract the disease. 

1900: Berlin Code of Ethics. Royal Prussian Minister of Religion, Education, and Medical Affairs guaranteed that: "all medical interventions for other than diagnostic, healing, and immunization purposes, regardless of other legal or moral authorization are excluded under all circumstances if (1) the human subject is a minor or not competent due to other reasons; (2) the human subject has not given his unambiguous consent; (3) the consent is not preceded by a proper explanation of the possible negative consequences of the intervention."http://www.geocities.com/artnscience/00berlincode.pdf

1906: Dr. Richard Strong, a professor of tropical medicine at Harvard, experiments with cholera on prisoners in the Philippines killing thirteen.

1913: Pennsylvania House of Representatives recorded that 146 children had been inoculated with syphilis, "through the courtesy of the various hospitals" and that 15 children in St. Vincent's House in Philadelphia had had their eyes tested with tuberculin. Several of these children became permanently blind. The experimenters were not punished.

1915: A doctor in Mississippi, working for the U.S. Public Health Office produces Pellagra in twelve Mississippi inmates in an attempt to discover a cure for the disease

1919-1922: Testicular transplant experiments on five hundred prisoners at San Quentin.

1927: Carrie Buck of Charlottesville is legally sterilized against her will at the Virginia Colony Home for the Mentally Infirm. Carrie Buck was the mentally normal daughter of a mentally retarded mother, but under the Virginia law, she was declared potentially capable of having a "less than normal child." By the 1930s, seventeen states in the U.S. have laws permitting forced sterilization.  The settlement of Poe v. Lynchburg Training School and Hospital (same institution, different name) in 1981 brought to an end the Virginia law. It is estimated that as many as 10,000 perfectly normal women were forcibly sterilized for "legal" reasons including alcoholism, prostitution, and criminal behavior in general.

1931: Lubeck, Germany, 75 children die in from pediatrician's experiment with tuberculosis vaccine.  

Germany adopts "Regulation on New Therapy and Experimentation" requiring all human experiments to be preceded by animal experiments. This law remained in effect during the Nazi regime.

1931: Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, a pathologist, conducted a cancer experiment in Puerto Rico under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations. Dr. Rhoads has been accused of purposely infecting his Puerto Rican subjects with cancer cells. Thirteen of the subjects died. A Puerto Rican physician uncovered the experiment an investigation covered-up the facts. Despite Rhoads' hand written statements that the Puerto Rican population should be eradicated, Rhoads went on to establish U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and was later named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Rhoads was also responsible for the radiation experiments on prisoners, hospital patients, and soldiers. The American Association for Cancer Research honored him by naming its exemplary scientist award the Cornelius Rhoads Award.

1932-1972: U.S. Public Health Service study in Tuskegee, Alabama of more than 400 black sharecroppers observed for the natural course of untreated syphilis.

1932: Japanese troops invade Manchuria. Dr. Shiro Ishii, a prominent physician and army officer begins preliminary germ warfare experiments. 

1936: Japan's Wartime Human Biowarfare Experimentation Program.

1938: Japan establishes Unit 731 in Pingfan, 25 km. from Harbin. Unit 731, a biological-warfare unit disguised as a water-purification unit, is formed outside the city of Harbin.

1939: Third Reich orders births of all twins be registered with Public Health Offices for purpose of genetic research.  [[One twin experimented on, the other twin used as a genetic “control”. -- DNI]]

1939: Twenty-two children living at the Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home in Davenport were the subjects of the "monster" experiment that used psychological pressure to induce children who spoke normally to stutter. It was designed by one of the nation's most prominent speech pathologists, Dr. Wendell Johnson, to test his theory on the cause of stuttering.

1940: Poisonous gas experiments at Unit 731 (Japan). One experiment conducted September 7-10, 1940, on 16 Chinese prisoners who were exposed to mustard gas in a simulated battle situation.

1940-1941: Unit 731 (Japan) used aircraft to spread cotton and rice husks contaminated with the black plague at Changde and Ningbo, in central China. About 100 people died from the black plague in Ningbo as a result.

1940's: In a crash program to develop new drugs to fight Malaria during World War II, doctors in the Chicago area infected nearly 400 prisoners with the disease. Although the Chicago inmates were given general information that they were helping with the war effort, they were not informed about the nature of the experiment. Nazi doctors on trial at Nuremberg cited the Chicago studies as precedents to defend their own research aimed at aiding the German war effort.

1941: Sterilization experiments at Auschwitz.

1941-1945: Typhus experiments at Buchenwald and Natzweiler concentration camps.

1941: Dr. William c. Black inoculated a twelve month old baby with herpes. He was criticized by Francis Payton Rous, editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, who called it "an abuse of power, an infringement of the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness which followed had implications for science." Dr. Rous rejected outright the fact that the child had been "offered as a volunteer."

1942 - 1945: Unit 731 (Japan). Ishii begins "field tests" of germ warfare and vivisection experiments on thousands of Chinese soldiers and civilians. Chinese people who rebelled against the Japanese occupation were arrested and sent to Pingfan where they became human guinea pigs; there is evidence that some Russian prisoners were also victims of medical atrocities. "I cut him open from the chest to the stomach and he screamed terribly and his face was all twisted in agony. He made this unimaginable sound, he was screaming so horribly. But then finally he stopped. This was all in a day's work for the surgeons, but it really left an impression on me because it was my first time." - NYT

These prisoners were called 'maruta' (literally 'logs') by the Japanese. After succumbing to induced diseases - including bubonic plague, cholera, anthrax - the prisoners were usually dissected while still alive, their bodies then cremated within the compound. Tens of thousands died. The atrocities were committed by some of Japan's most distinguished doctors recruited by Dr. Ishii.

1942: High altitude or low pressure experiments at Dachau concentration camp.

1942: Harvard biochemist Edward Cohn injects sixty-four Massachusetts prisoners with beef blood in U.S. Navy-sponsored experiment.

1942: Japanese sprayed cholera, typhoid, plague, and dysentery pathogens in the Jinhua area of Zhejian province (China). A large number of Japanese soldiers also fell victim to the sprayed diseases.

1942-1943: Bone regeneration and transplantation experiments on female prisoners at Ravensbrueck concentration camp.

1942-1943: Freezing experiments at Dachau concentration camp.

1943 Refrigeration experiment conducted on sixteen mentally disabled patients who were placed in refrigerated cabinets at 30 degree Farenheit, for 120 hours, at University of Cincinnati Hospital., "to study the effect of frigid temperature on mental disorders."

1942-1943: Coagulation experiments on Catholic priests at Dachau concentration camp.

1942-1944: U.S. Chemical Warfare Service conducts mustard gas experiments on thousands of servicemen.

1942-1945: Malaria experiments at Dachau concentration camp on more than twelve hundred prisoners.

1943: Epidemic jaundice experiments at Natzweiler concentration camp.

1943-1944: Phosphorus burn experiments at Buchenwald concentration camp.

1944: Manhattan Project injection of 4.7 micrograms of plutonium into soldiers at Oak Ridge, TN.

1944: Seawater experiment on sixty Gypsies who were given only saltwater to drink at Dachau concentration camp.

1944-1946: University of Chicago Medical School professor Dr. Alf Alving conducts malaria experiments on more than 400 Illinois prisoners.

1945: Manhattan Project injection of plutonium into three patients at Billings Hospital at University of Chicago.

1945: Malaria experiment on 800 prisoners in Atlanta.

1946: Opening of Nuremberg Doctors Trial by U.S. Military Tribunal.

1945: Japanese troops blow up the headquarters of Unit 731 in final days of Pacific war. Ishii orders 150 remaining ''logs'' (i.e., human beings) killed to cover up their experimentation. Gen. Douglas MacArthur is named commander of the Allied powers in Japan.

1946: U.S. secret deal with Ishii and Unit 731 leaders cover up of germ warfare data based on human experimentation in exchange for immunity from war-crimes prosecution.

1946-1953: Atomic Energy Commission sponsored study conducted at the Fernald school in Massachusetts. Residents were fed Quaker Oats breakfast cereal containing radioactive tracers.

1946: Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word "experiments" to "investigations" or "observations" whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation's veteran's hospitals.

1947: Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.

1947: The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge.

1947: Judgment at Nuremberg Doctors Trial sets forth "Permissible Medical Experiments" i.e., the Nuremberg Code, which begins: "The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential."

1949: Intentional release of radiodine 131 and xenon 133 over Hanford Washington in Atomic Energy Commission field study called "Green Run."

1949: Soviet Union's war crimes trial of Dr. Ishii's associates (Japan).

1949-1953: Atomic Energy Commission studies of mentally disabled school children fed radioactive isotopes at Fernald and Wrentham schools.

1940s-1950s: "psychic driving" and "mental departterning" experiments conducted by Dr. Ewen Cameron, depriving patients of sleep, using massive ECT combined with psychoactive drugs such as, LSD. After his "treatments" patients were unable to function. In the 1950's Dr.Cameron's experiments were sponsored by the CIA.

1950: Dr. Joseph Stokes of the University of Pennsylvania infects 200 women prisoners with viral hepatitis.

1950: U.S. Army secretly used a Navy ship outside the Golden Gate to spray supposedly harmless bacteria over San Francisco and its outskirts. Eleven people were sickened by the germs, and one of them died.

1951-1960: University of Pennsylvania under contract with U.S. Army conducts psychopharmacological experiments on hundreds of Pennsylvania prisoners.

1952-1974: University of Pennsylvania dermatologist Dr. Albert Kligman conducts skin product experiments by the hundreds at Holmesburg Prison; "All I saw before me," he has said about his first visit to the prison, "were acres of skin."

1952: Henry Blauer injected with a fatal dose of mescaline at New York State Psychiatric Institute of Columbia University. U.S. Department of Defense, the sponsor, conspired to conceal evidence for 23 years.

1953 Newborn Daniel Burton rendered blind at Brooklyn Doctor's Hospital due to high oxygen study on RLF.

1953-1957: Oak Ridge (TN)-sponsored injection of uranium into eleven patients at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

1953-1960: CIA brainwashing experiments with LSD at eighty institutions on hundreds of subjects in a project code named "MK-ULTRA."

1953-1970: U.S. Army experiments with LSD on soldiers at Fort Detrick, Md.

1954-1974: U.S. Army study of 2,300 Seventh-Day Adventist soldiers in 157 experiments code named "Operation Whitecoat."

1950s - 1972: Mentally disabled children at Willowbrook School (NY) were deliberately infected with hepatitis in an attempt to find a vaccine. Participation in the study was a condition for admission to institution.

1956: Dr. Albert Sabin tests experimental polio vaccine on 133 prisoners in Ohio.

1958-1962: Spread of radioactive materials over Inupiat land in Point Hope, Alaska in Atomic Energy Commission field study code named "Project Chariot."

1962: Thalidomide withdrawn from the market after thousands of birth deformities blamed in part on misleading results of animal studies; the FDA thereafter requires three phases of human clinical trials before a drug can be approved for the market.

1962 to 1966, a total of 33 pharmaceutical companies tested 153 experimental drugs at Holmesburg prison (PA) alone.

1962-1980 Pharmaceutical companies conduct phase I safety testing of drugs almost exclusively on prisoners for small cash payments.

1962: Injection of live cancer cells into 22 elderly patients at Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in Brooklyn. Administration covered up, NYS licensing board placed the principal investigator on probation for one year. Two years later, American Cancer Society elected him Vice President.

1962: Stanley Milgram conducts obedience research at Yale University.

1963: NIH supported researcher transplants chimpanzee kidney into human in failed experiment.

1963-1973: Dr. Carl Heller, a leading endocrinologist, conducts testicular irradiation experiments on prisoners in Oregon and Washington giving them $5 a month and $100 when they receive a vasectomy at the end of the trial.

1964: World Medical Association adopts Helsinki Declaration, asserting "The interests of science and society should never take precedence over the well being of the subject."

 1965-1966: University of Pennsylvania under contract with Dow Chemical conducts dioxin experiments on prisoners at Holmesburg.

 1966: Henry Beecher's article "Ethics and Clinical Research" in New England Journal of Medicine.

 1966: U.S. Army introduces bacillus globigii into New York subway tunnels in field study.

 1966: NIH Office for Protection of Research Subjects ("OPRR") created and issues Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects calling for establishment of independent review bodies later known as Institutional Review Boards.

1967: British physician M.H. Pappworth publishes "Human Guinea Pigs," advising "No doctor has the right to choose martyrs for science or for the general good."

1969: Judge Sam Steinfield's eloquent dissent in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145, the first judicial suggestion that the Nuremberg Code should influence American jurisprudence.

1969. Milledgeville Georgia, investigational drugs tested on mentally disabled children. No institutional approval.

1969: San Antonio Contraceptive Study conducted on 70 poor Mexican-American women. Half received oral contraceptives the other placebo. No informed consent.

1973 Ad Hoc Advisory Panel issues Final Report of Tuskegee Syphilis Study, concluding "Society can no longer afford to leave the balancing of individual rights against scientific progress to the scientific community."

1974: National Research Act establishes National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects and requires Public Health Service to promulgate regulations for the protection of human subjects.  [[The NRA also mandated that then-Secretary of DHHS Casper Weinburger appoint a committee to determine the 'ethical principles the US government should use in dealing with the use of human subjects in research.  Thus the National Commission was established in 1975, consisting of 11 appointed members, only one (Art Caplan) with a Ph.D. in philosophy (ethics is a subfield of philosophy). (Caplan is now on the Board of Trustees of the transhumanist Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (IEET)). In 1978/9 the National Commission submitted its Belmont Report -- the formal 'birth of bioethics' -- denoting three ethical principles:  respect for persons (which was rapidly replaced by autonomy), justice and beneficence (all oddly defined).  The NRA also mandated that the Belmont Report be incorporated on the first page of the revised OPRR federal regulations (now OHRP), done in 1981.  In those OPRR federal regulations, the 'human embryo' is nowhere defined as a 'subject of research' or otherwise -- thus legally does not exist.  Two false scientific definitions are incorporated into those OPRR regulations:  both 'pregnancy and fetus' are mis-defined as 'beginning at implantation'.  Real natural normal pregnancy begins at fertilization in the woman's fallopian tube (not in her uterus), and the 'fetal period' doesn't really begin until the beginning of 9 weeks post-fertilization. Thus theoretically,  according to these federal regulations (still operative as the OHRP regulations), abortions, the use of abortifacients, human embryo flushing, research on all human embryos in vitro in IVF/ART facilities can be 'legally' performed through 8 weeks post-fertilization. The USCCB official who inserted these two false scientific definitions was Richard Doerflinger. Of course, these federal regulations would also allow for all the genetic engineering (including synthetic biology and nanotechnology) of human embryos -- in vivo or in vitro -- so popular today.  -- DNI]]

1975: The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) raised NIH's 1966 Policies for the Protection of Human subjects to regulatory status. Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations, known as "The Common Rule," requires the appointment and utilization of institutional review boards (IRBs).

1976: National Urban League holds National Conference on Human Experimentation, announcing "We don't want to kill science but we don't want science to kill, mangle and abuse us."

1978: Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.

1979: National Commission issues Belmont Report setting forth three basic ethical principles: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.

1980: The FDA promulgates 21 CFR 50.44 prohibiting use of prisoners as subjects in clinical trials shifting phase I testing by pharmaceutical companies to non-prison population.

1981: Leonard Whitlock suffers permanent brain damage after deep diving experiment at Duke University.

1986: Congressional subcommittee holds one-day hearing in Washington, called by Rep. Pat Williams of Montana, aimed at determining whether U.S. prisoners of war in Manchuria were victims of germ-warfare experimentation. Hearing is inconclusive.

1981-1996: Protocol 126 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle.

1987: Supreme Court decision in United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669, holding soldier given LSD without his consent could not sue U.S. Army for damages.

1987:" L-dopa challenge and relapse" experiment conducted on 28 U.S. veterans who were subjected to psychotic relapse for study purposes at the Bronx VA.

1990: The FDA grants Department of Defense waiver of Nuremberg Code for use of unapproved drugs and vaccines in Desert Shield.

1991: World Health Organization announces CIOMS Guidelines which set forth four ethical principles: respect for persons, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice.

1991: Tony LaMadrid commits suicide after participating in study on relapse of schizophrenics withdrawn from medication at UCLA.

1993: Kathryn Hamilton dies 44 days after participating in breast cancer experiment at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle.

1994. The Albuquerque Tribune publicizes 1940s experiments involving plutonium injection of human research subjects and secret radiation experiments. Indigent patients and mentally retarded children were deceived about the nature of their treatment.

1994. President Clinton appoints the Advisory Commission on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) The ACHRE Report http://tis.eh.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/index.html

1995. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published Human Radiation Experiments, listing 150 plus an additional 275 radiation experiments conducted by DOE and the Atomic Energy Commission, during the 1940s - 1970s. http://tis.eh.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/experiments/0491doca.html#0491_List

1995: 19-year-old University of Rochester student Nicole Wan dies after being paid $150 to participate in MIT-sponsored experiment to test airborne pollutant chemicals.

1995. President Clinton appoints the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.

1995: NYS Supreme Court rules (TD v NYS Office of Mental Health) against the state's policy of conducting nontherapeutic experiments on mentally incapacitated persons - including children - without informed consent. Justice Edward Greenfield ruled that parents have no authority to volunteer their children: "Parents may be free to make martyrs of themselves, but it does not follow that they may make martyrs of their children."

1995: Thirty-four healthy, previously non-aggressive New York City minority children, boys aged 6 to 11 years old, were exposed to fenfluramine in a nontherapeutic experiment at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. The children were exposed to this neurotoxic drug to record their neurochemical response in an effort to prove a speculative theory linking aggression to a biological marker.

1996. Cleveland Plain Dealer investigative report series, 'Drug Trials: Do People Know the Truth About Experiments,' December 15 to 18, 1996. The Plain-Dealer found: of the "4,154 FDA inspections of researchers testing new drugs on people [since 1977] . . . more than half the researchers were cited by FDA inspectors for failing to clearly disclose the experimental nature of their work."

1996: Yale University researchers publish findings of experiment that subjected 18 stable schizophrenia patients to psychotic relapse in an amphetamine provocation experiment at West Haven VA.

1997. President Clinton issues a formal apology to the subjects of the Tuskegee syphilis experiments. NBAC continues investigation into genetics, consent, privacy, and research on persons with mental disorders.

1997. Researchers at the University of Cincinnati publish findings of experiment attempting to create a "psychosis model" on human beings at the Cincinnati VA. Sixteen patients, experiencing a first episode schizophrenia, were subjected to repeated provocation with amphetamine. The stated purpose was to produce "behavioral sensitization. This process serves as a model for the development of psychosis, but has been little studied in humans. Symptoms, such as severity of psychosis and eye-blink rates, were measured hourly for 5 hours."

1997. U.S. government sponsored placebo-controlled experiment withholds treatment from HIV infected, pregnant African women. NY Times, Sept. 18.

1997. Victims of unethical research at major U.S. medical centers - including the NIMH - testify before the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Sept. 18.

1997. FDA Modernization Act gives pharmaceutical companies a huge financial incentive - a 6 month patent exclusivity extension - if they conduct drug tests on children. The incentive can yield $900 million.

1998. National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) Report. Research Involving Subjects with Mental Disorders That May Affect Decisionmaking Capacity. November 12,

1998 http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/capacity/TOC.htm

1998: The Japanese government has never formally apologized for Unit 731's activities, and did not even admit to its existence until August 1998, when the Supreme Court ruled that the existence of the unit was accepted in academic circles.

1998. Complaint filed with OPRR about experiments that exposed non-violent children in New York City to fenfluramine to find a predisposition to violence.

1998: Boston Globe (four part) series, "Doing Harm: Research on the Mentally Ill" shed light on the mistreatment and exploitation of schizophrenia patients who have been subjected to relapse producing procedures in unethical experiments.

1999: Nine month-old Gage Stevens dies at Children's Hospital in Pittsburgh during participation in Propulsid clinical trial for infant acid reflux.

1999: 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger dies after being injected with 37 trillion particles of adenovirus in gene therapy experiment at University of Pennsylvania.

1999: Director of National Institute of Mental Health suspends 29 clinical trials that failed to meet either ethical or scientific standards.

2000: University of Oklahoma melanoma trial halted for failure to follow government regulations and protocol.

2000: OPRR becomes Office of Human Research Protection ("OHRP") and made part of the Department of Health and Human Services.

2000: President Clinton implements the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Act of 2000, which authorized compensation for thousands of Department of Energy workers who sacrificed their health in building the nation's nuclear defenses.

2000: The Washington Post (6 part) series, "Body Hunters" exposes unethical exploitation in experiments conducted by U.S. investigators in underdeveloped countries. Part 4 dealt with U.S. government funded, genetic experiments conducted by Harvard University in rural China.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A26797-2000Dec19.html

2001: A biotech company in Pennsylvania asks the FDA for permission to conduct placebo trials on infants in Latin America born with serious lung disease though such tests would be illegal in U.S.

2001: Ellen Roche, a healthy 27-year old volunteer, dies in challenge study at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

2001: April 4, Elaine Holden-Able, a healthy retired nurse, consumed a glass of orange juice that had been mixed with a dietary supplement for the sake of medical research. This Case Western University Alzheimer's experiment, financed by the tobacco industry, wound up killing her in what was called a ''tragic human error.'' Federal Office of Human Research Protections did not interview hospital staff, mostly accepted hospital's internal report, imposed no penalty, and closed the case and did not mention the death in its letter of determination. http://ohrp.osophs.dhhs.gov/detrm_letrs/nov01f.pdf

2001: Maryland Court of Appeals renders a landmark decision affirming "best interest of the individual child" as a standard for medical research involving children. The Court unequivocally prohibited nontherapeutic experimentation on children. (Higgins and Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute).The case involved exposure of babies and small children to lead poisoning in EPA funded experiment. (http://www.courts.state.md.us/opinions/coa/2001/128a00.pdf)

 

 


Note:  A very sobering chronology of unethical human research -- at least such that was reported -- well worth contemplating -- especially now that even our federal agencies are pushing to do away with the 'informed consent' requirement as the only way to get 'data';  see, e.g.: 

**Medical Research Stakeholders Seek to Overturn Informed Consent Protections;  Part 3 of 4, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/928/9/

**Medical Research Stakeholders Seek to Overturn Informed Consent Protections;  Part 2 of 4, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/927/81/

**Another View Academics for Informed Consent, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/926/99/

**Medical Research Stakeholders Seek to Overturn Informed Consent Protection;  Part 1 of 4, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/925/81/

**OHRP Caves Under SUPPORT Pressure Re: oxygen experiment tiny premature babies, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/924/81/

Note especially the unethical research pre-World War II through 2001 -- all performed supposedly for 'beneficent, altruistic or 'national security' reasons, mostly by government agencies, esteemed academic medical facilities, prominent investigators, pharmaceutical companies -- mostly without 'informed consent' or the victims' knowledge, on vulnerable children, prisoners, the elderly, mentally ill and retarded, political and ethnic opponents, Third World populace, etc.  Given the current explosion of especially genetic and genetic engineering research -- and the concomitant explosion of scientific fraud and unethical experiments -- all need to be aware of these very disturbing precedents.  'Data' at any cost.  'Bioethics' would approve most of this as being 'for the greater good'.  However, there are other 'ethics' insisting that 'the ends never justify the means'.  See especially 1974, above.  Please read carefully, all the way through to the end.  I bet you won't be able to.  Note:  'VA' used above usually refers to 'Veterans Administration'.  . -- DNI]



Are Atheists Really Fools?

by Roderick C. Meredith


I have before me two newspaper articles with which I strongly disagree. Although I generally love the Wall Street Journal and find its articles and editorials very helpful and stimulating, the articles I am referring to are written in my opinion-- by a couple of "educated fools" --well-known scientist Richard Dawkins and religion writer Karen Armstrong. In an article titled "Man vs. God" (WSJ, September 12, 2009), they "debated" evolution, science and the role of religion. Dawkins came down hard against the idea of a real God and against religion in general. He asserted, "Evolution is the universe's greatest work. Evolution is the creator of life, and life is arguably the most surprising and most beautiful production that the laws of physics have ever generated."

Dawkins went on making fun of God and describing the glories of evolution. But is his kind of reasoning based on fact? Is his supposed "scientific approach" all neat and tidy?

No!


For in his remarks praising "Darwinian life" and denigrating God, Dawkins cheerfully said, "What is so special about life? It never violates the laws of physics. Nothing does (if anything did, physicists would just have to formulate new laws ' --it's happened often enough in the history of science). But although life never violates the laws of physics, it pushes them into unexpected avenues that stagger the imagination."

Do you see Dawkin's problem? He starts out with an already existing universe. This universe has basic "laws" which he admits are never broken! Later, he goes on to admit, once again, "Never once are the laws of physics violated, yet life emerges into uncharted territory."

Think
about this preposterous reasoning!

This supposed "great" scientist admits that "never once are the laws of physics violated." Yet he somehow fails to grasp that something or someone had to create these laws of physics and the entire universe that is filled with inviolate laws. It is obvious to most truly sincere and thinking persons that the interrelated and overlapping laws of physics, chemistry, and other areas of science must have been created by a Higher Power--an awesome Being--with a mind far above the human mind. He set in motion these laws and created the beauty, the delicacy and the constancy of this universe to sustain the laws that govern our lives.

As letter-writer Joseph Furman replied a week later in response to the article: "I only had two semesters of college physics, so I must have missed the part where Mr. Dawkins' much vaunted laws of physics began permitting man to love, laugh and cry" (WSJ, September 19, 2009).

Who indeed
brought about the creative mind which man alone possesses--and the ability to back off and laugh at himself, to love, and to sometimes give with no thought of a return, and to have a deep spiritual longing with recognition that there must be a higher power?

The so-called "scientists" who try to bypass the basic fact of an entire universe filled with consistent laws and a host of creatures and creations that interact with each other in a way that beautifully "works"--"these people are indeed lacking in understanding and wisdom. As the Psalmist wrote, "The fool has said in his heart, "There is no God" (Psalm 14:1).

For her part, religion writer Karen Armstrong wandered around with "touchy feely" ideas that frankly prove nothing. She stated, "The best theology is a spiritual exercise, akin to poetry. Religion is not an exact science but a kind of art form that, like music or painting, introduces us to a mode of knowledge that is different from the purely rational and which cannot easily be put into words."

Indeed, she had a hard time rationally putting her ideas into words! It is sad that, in the name of "religion," this kind of response was chosen to supposedly rebut the atheist Richard Dawkins. For, her response showed no understanding of true religion--nor of a genuine approach to the God of the Bible.

Part of the problem facing these confused individuals is revealed in Aldous Huxley's statement in his well-known book, Ends and Means. This famous thinker and philosopher admits, "Most ignorance is invincible ignorance. We don't know because we don't want to know. It is our will that decides how and upon what subjects we shall use our intelligence. Those who detect no meaning in the world generally do so because, for one reason or another, it suits their books that the world should be meaningless" (p. 312).

Indeed, it is not "fashionable" to believe in a real God. For people like to deny the truth of revealed prophecy in His inspired word, the Bible. But the truth remains! If you have not already done so, write for your free subscription to our Tomorrow's World Bible Study Course. There, you will learn for yourself the truth about fulfilled prophecy. You will see, for example, how God inspired Isaiah to write about the activities of King Cyrus of Persia 200 years in advance--"events confirmed by secular history and your Bible! Yes, my friends, this is a real God! Is He real to you?

People soon will have to believe in God--for He is right now beginning to intervene powerfully in world affairs in very specific ways which we at Tomorrow's World have been telling you about for years! Fulfilled prophecy is very difficult for the skeptic to refute. For it not only has happened--as I indicated--"but you can now see it continuing to happen all around you, if you truly understand prophecy and read your daily newspaper or watch a television channel that actually gives world news.

This very Work--which produces the Tomorrow's World television program and Tomorrow's World magazine--is a continuation of the Work led by Herbert W. Armstrong--a well-known servant of Christ who died in 1986 at age 93. In August 1950, he wrote in The Plain Truth magazine, "No all-out full-scale war is prophesied between Russia and the United States. The famous prophecy of Ezek. 38 and 39 foretells a Russian invasion of Palestine, much later, not against the North American continent" (p. 2).

Remember, dear reader, that back then the vast majority of Bible "prophecy students" were proclaiming that Ezekiel 38 foretold a Russian attack on the North American continent! Often, as we have noted repeatedly, Mr. Armstrong stood alone in proclaiming the Truth of what actually was and is happening in world affairs.

Writing in The Good News in April 1952, Mr. Armstrong proclaimed (at a time virtually no one expected this): "Russia may give East Germany back to the Germans and will be forced to relinquish her control over Hungary, Czechoslovakia and parts of Austria to complete the ten nation union. Europe will have a free hand to destroy America and Britain as prophesied" (p. 16).

How could Mr. Armstrong possibly have known 37 years in advance that Russia was not to become America's greatest challenge--and was not to attack us directly? How could he have known that Russia would, in fact, give East Germany back to the Germans and be forced to relinquish her control over Germany, Czechoslovakia and parts of Austria?

Because, my friends, there is a real God who inspired this information in His Holy Bible! That same God is speaking to your mind now through this Work! We have told you that unless America and the British-descended peoples come to a genuine national repentance such as has never been seen before, they will continue their downward spiral! Almost everything will seem to go wrong. For the Eternal God told our forefathers that if we do not obey His commandments and statutes, He would bring upon us "terror" and then "wasting disease and fever" (Leviticus 26:14-17). We have witnessed--and will continue to witness--all kinds of terror, including terrorist attacks on our cities, our seaports, our airports, our railway stations and our other forms of transport. And we will soon be entering a time of "wasting disease" such as we have never experienced before.

God tells us that if we will not repent, He "will break the pride of your power" (Leviticus 26:19).

To understand these facts, please write for our free booklets, The Real God: Proofs and Promises and Prophecy Fulfilled: God's Hand in World Affairs. You need this vital information! You need to have the intellectual and spiritual honesty to prove to yourself that most of the "educated fools" around you who deny God's existence are the ones who are really "out of touch"!

And you need--with all your heart--to get "in touch" with the real God who gives you life and breath, who is now intervening in human affairs before setting up His very real Kingdom or World Government to finally bring peace to a very confused world. May God help you to be willing to face genuine facts. And may He help you to act on the precious Truth that He alone can provide!

 


Dr. Roderick C. Meredith is editor in chief of Tomorrow's World magazine. His article is reprinted from the Nov. - Dec. 2009 issue, "The Truth About 2012: Hollywood vs. Humanity". Republished here by special permission from the Living Church of God.


Noah's Arc..Biblical legend or scientific reality?

by Blog Administrator

{The photo above is a half scale replica of Noah's Arc built in the Netherlands by Dutch Creationist Johan Huibers as a testament to his faith in the literal truth of the Bible. The Ark is 150 cubits long, 30 cubits high and 20 cubits wide. That's two-thirds the length of a football field and as high as a three-story house. Photos and captions courtesy of various news and information sources -Ed.}

The bible indicates that a great flood was initiated by God because the earth was filled with violence and blood. (Gen 6)

There are historical accounts of a great cataclysmic flood in many cultures admitted by secular historians. The legend of Gilgamesh describes the great flood as recorded in Indian folklore. Although secular historians discount the flood as nothing more than a myth perpetuated in folklore, there is much physical evidence apart from the bible that affirms the great flood.

40 days and 40 nights: The biblical account maintains that the great flood was initiated by rain for 40 days and 40 nights and that the fountains of the deep were opened. The rain would have been driven by the fountains of the deep erupting into the atmosphere from a cataclysmic event such as an earthquake. A Mid-ocean ridge traversing the earth like the seams of a baseball suggests that a fault in the earth's crust released this pressurized water.

The earth's tilt and/or wobble was likely altered from the huge mass of water now accumulating on the earth's surface, resulting in dramatic climate change after the flood.

Photo: Working Replica of Noah's Ark Opened In SCHAGEN, Netherlands

The resulting flood depth may be estimated by a simple calculation. The total known water on earth is 1.4 billion cubic kilometers or 4.592E18 ft3 (cubic feet) of water. The earth's surface area can be estimated from 4/3 Pi(r)2, where r= earth's radius.

Then 4/3 * (3.14) * (2.089E07 ft)2 = 1.827 E15 ft2 (Sq. Feet). The maximum flood water height attainable is then: 4.592E18 ft3/1.827 E15 ft2 = 2513 ft. So the water depth during the flood could not exceed 2513 ft and must be near the maximum depth after 150 days by the Genesis account. The height of the pre-flood mountains was therefore 2500 ft or less.

The earth before the flood was not 75% water as it is today. The bible only mentions one sea in which the four rivers leaving the garden of Eden, emptied, i.e. Pison, Gihon, Hiddekel, and Euphrates. The release of water from the fountains of the deep would create massive change in the earth's surface, pushing up huge uplifts and creating vast sea trenches. The Isthmus of Panama is evidence of tectonic plate shift created by flood post trauma in which billions of tons of water were released under pressure.

"Contrary to previous evidence..the Isthmus of Panama was most likely formed by a Central American Peninsula colliding slowly with the South American continent through tectonic plate movement [during and after a great flood].. The canal's maintenance also exposes sediment layers and marine animal fossils, as well as strata of rocks and clay specific to numerous environments, including lagoon, delta, swamp, woodland and dry tropical forest." This is the expected progression of the land as the great floodwaters continued to abate. So the higher mountains that we observe today would have been created during and after the great flood.

Preflood seawater composition was very different, only mildly salty compared to 35,000 ppm salinity today. The evolutionary account of origin also makes a similar claim for mild salinity in the early oceans: "In the beginning the primeval seas must have been only slightly salty. But ever since the first rains descended upon the young Earth hundreds of millions of years ago [or thousands of years ago as in a great flood] and ran over the land breaking up rocks and transporting their minerals to the seas, the ocean has become saltier." - Herbert Swenson, US Geological Survey Publication. So how did the seas get so salty?

Given the huge underground caverns of salt and other mineral deposits throughout the earth, water released from beneath the crust, i.e. from the fountains of the deep, would have passed through many of these beds on its way to the surface leaching out minerals. Salt and other dissolvable solids would be picked up by the floodwaters and transported to the newly created seas. It likely took centuries for the salt levels to attain their present day levels as opposed to evolutionists' claim of 'millions of years'. Periodic melting of the polar icecaps causes certain regions of the oceans to be less salty.

The materials contained in seawater are consistent with known mineral deposits across the globe and provides good support for the bible's account.

The flood not only accounts for the origin of the oceans but also of the rich petroleum deposits we find today. Oil is formed from the remains of tiny plants and animals (plankton) that died in ancient seas between 10 million and 600 million years ago during a great flood. After the organisms died, they sank into the sand and mud at the bottom of the sea. Bacteria acting in the underground caverns where dead animals and plants were trapped after the floodwaters had abated, produced vast quantities of crude oil.

Seawater also contains the two most important gases for sustaining life, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Availability of Food after the flood:

Evolutionists have claimed that there would have been no food available after the flood because of the salt water. It should be noted that saltwater isn't always detrimental to plant growth, plants exhibit some tolerance depending on the degree of salinity. Belgium suffered salt water flooding of many of their crop fields during the 2nd world war but were still able to grow: "Seawater flooding in Belgium produces bumper Crop"

Supplies may have been low immediately after disembarking from the ark but seaweed (kelp) would have been abundant. It's rich in Iodine, so it could have been eaten by both man (as it is in Japan) and beasts, a boost to the immune system. Especially helpful in lieu of disease from contact with human and animal waste in the arc and being near dead creatures immediately upon leaving the arc.

The bible says: "Make thee an Arc of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark; and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch..The length of the arc shall be 300 cubits, the breadth of it 50 cubits, and the height of it 30 cubits." - - Gen 6:v14-15

Photo: A contractor by trade, Huibers built the ark of cedar and pine.  Biblical Scholars debate exactly what the wood used by Noah would have been

Ark construction and feasibility

The Ark was most likely space frame or Semi-monocoque (hybrid) design rather than rib and keel construction. This eliminates the hogging associated with ships like the USS Constitution not to mention the logistic problems of a 300 cubit (600') keel.

No one knows what gopher wood is today. Several ideas have been put forth suggesting that it might be some form of laminated construction material or simply pitch saturated wood. If the latter, then why state the double requirement for pitch "within and without"? Would not the term 'gopher' itself convey that meaning? And, if it's a laminate, then why isn't it stated as to how the layers are to be developed as God did when telling Moses on the mount to take care to make all the things He commanded according to the patterns given?

The fact that gopher wood is not mentioned anywhere else in the flood account implies that it was a wood well known to the inhabitants of the time. It may be just another term for a common tree variety today that fell out of usage after most perished in the flood. Brazilian Ipe {eepay} is a wood known by many different names, some of which are 'Amapa', 'Greenheart', Tahuari'... etc. The unique 'gopher' designation could describe a variety of wood species just as the term 'Santos Mahogany' does.

"Santos Mahogany is grown in countries all the way from Mexico to Argentina... This rich species of Mahogany is deep reddish-brown to orange-brown in color in its heartwood. It is tougher and stronger than typical Genuine Mahogany, and it wears incredibly well over time. "

If the Arc's dimensions can be taken literally then why not the type of wood? Gopher, like 'Santos Mahogany', could have grown only in the area where the ark was built. Destroy the habitat and you destroy the species. Extinction is not unknown in our own time. The available supply of Gopher wood may have been destroyed either by the force of the flood, a higher salt-water concentration or simply an over abundance of water from the ensuing deluge.

The term 'gopher' does not necessarily infer a stronger wood than other species but perhaps it simply offered superior decay resistance like Ipe. Ipe resists insects, moisture and rot, highly desirable characteristics for a construction material during the 100 year long building of the Arc. Gopher may have been a wood better suited to marine use, just as one selects maple for building furniture, rather than cottonwood or elm. Many kinds of wood today are capable of satisfying the structural loading requirements of the Arc such as Hickory, Teak, and White oak.

The Arc and its frame would have been constructed with trunnels or dowel pins made with a hardwood like locust. Although Brazilian Ipe and Locust woods are difficult to work by hand, they make excellent fasteners because of their shear resistance 2060 psi and 1760 psi respectively. All wood in and outside the Arc would have been coated with a pitch sealant.

Pitch: a dark oily liquid obtained by distillation of coal tar, used as a preservative for wood. Pitch contains some 150 different compounds, creosote is one used to preserve wood such as rail ties. Noah's pitch likely didn't depend on distillation. "There are examples of stave churches that have been preserved with pine tar for nearly a thousand years.."

Photo: Deck not quite ready in time for the opening...

Arc construction began in May of 2005.

Huibers did most of the work himself with his own hands, of course, using modern tools and with some occasional help from his son Roy.

The bible indicates that there were 3 decks. The door or gangway would have been located at the 2nd deck elevation, whether in the side or in one of the ends, is still a matter under consideration. An earthen or wooden ramp would have had to be built by Noah and his family for the animals to board.

In the real Arc, ramps would have guided the animals to the upper or lower decks. Noah, his family and smaller animals and birds were likely on the top deck where the Arc's windows provided light.

Rainwater could have been collected during the 40 days rain depending on how the Arc's windows were fashioned. The food supply could be augmented by fishing from an Arc window at either or both ends of the ship.

The Coelacanth (see-la-kanth) fish "..astonished ichtyologists..[who] had been convinced that the last coelacanths were found only off eastern Africa, mainly in the Commoros archipelago. They had been thought to have died out around the time dinosaurs became extinct {70 million years ago -Ed.}, until one was found there in 1938. "

Photo: The massive central door in the side of Noah's Ark opened for the first crowd of curious townsfolk to behold the wonder.

In Noah's full size Arc, there would be room for some 35,000 species in small cages not including those that could survive in the sea.

Animals taken aboard the ark would have likely been very young, despite the obvious accommodation benefit, they would have longer lives in which to reproduce and replenish the earth. Small animals and reptiles would not grow dramatically in one year on the arc and reptiles are known to go long periods without food. In the dark holds of the ship, the animals would have spent most of their time sleeping.

The vertebrates would require approximately 146 railroad cars to house at the smallest 18" cubit dimension and the ark could contain some 500-railroad cars at the smallest dimension of the cubit.

There would be adequate storage space for food and water for each creature.
Photo Rampway similar to what would have been used to guide animals above or below the main deck.

It's calculated that the real Arc drew between 19 to 24 feet of waterline with its cargo and "..all manner of food" and water.

The first deck would have been completely submerged.

Dinosaurs & Man: (Job 40, v15-23 and Job 41, v15-21 ): "..in 1856, French workers were digging a railway tunnel when something monstrous stumbled towards them, emerging from a large boulder from the Jurassic period, that they had just split open... it was examined by a palaeontologist, and identified as a Pterodactyl.."

Evolutionists claim that man experienced a brush with extinction in the past, which supports the role Noah and his sons had in repopulating the earth.

'Human line 'nearly split in two': "The Genographic Project's findings are also consistent with the idea - held for some years now - that modern humans had a close brush with extinction in the evolutionary past [Or from a great flood!]. The number of early humans may have shrunk as low as 2,000 [or just Noah & his family!] before numbers began to expand again in the Late Stone Age. "

Photo: Life-size models of giraffes, elephants, lions, crocodiles, zebras,  bison and other animals greet visitors as they arrive in the main hold.

Skin color after the flood: (Acts 8:v27) If Adam and Eve were Middle Eastern in complexion, all the variations of man from Caucasian to Negroid could have been passed along to the generations from this genetic trait through Noah. The people of like coloration would have tended to separate into like bands or tribes. Scientists Find A DNA Change That Accounts For White Skin.. "In fact, several scientists said..new work shows just how small a biological difference is reflected by skin color. The newly found mutation involves a change of just one letter of DNA code out of the 3.1 billion letters in the human genome -- the complete instructions for making a human being."

Pigmentation Gene - SLC24A5: The anthropology of race and the discovery of a skin color gene, SLC24A5 ".. researchers then looked at two different human populations in which people with European and African ancestors had mixed relatively recently - African-Americans and African-Caribbeans. They found that, on average, people with two copies of the European version of the gene had the lightest skin. People with two copies of the non-European version of the gene had darker skin, and people with one copy of each version of the gene had skin color somewhere in between. "

Further Evidence of the great flood: Trees petrified in the aftermath of the flood: CONCLUSION.." The evidence presented here provides a basis for additional detailed research that could be done. Such research would be beneficial for our understanding of these unique fossil deposits. Offhand, the in situ model would appear to be the simplest and most natural explanation, but closer examination uncovers features that are difficult to explain for trees in growth position. A transport model involving the flotation of trees and organic debris in a body of water, as illustrated in Spirit Lake, gives a better fit to the data as observed in the Yellowstone Petrified Forests. We propose that the Yellowstone Petrified Forests provide an example of catastrophic deposition" as in the onset of a great flood.

"Now that I am old and Gray...give me the time to tell This new generation (and their children too) About all your mighty miracles." (Psalm 71:18 ) The bible says what it means and it means what it says.

Attachments:

          Noah's Arc Wind Effects.doc (329KB)

    Noah's Arc _HeaveDowelPinEffects5_11_10.doc (154 KB)

         Noah'sArcStructuralSummary3_7_11.doc (240KB)

       Noah'sArcRollstability12_10_11.doc (116KB)

 

Comments

Re:Noah's Arc..biblical legend or scientific reality?

by Allen Williams on Sat 27 Jun 2009 10:13 PM CDT | Profile | Permanent Link

There are two planned upgrades in addendum form for Noah's Arc. The first is a summary of structural calculations on the full size Arc, now included as Attachment 1. The second is a future update on dynamic analysis of roll stabiliry under different assumed sea and wave formations. - Ed.

Re: Re:Noah's Arc..biblical legend or scientific reality?

by Anonymous on Tue 12 Jan 2010 01:32 PM CST | Permanent Link

Arc Statistical tests on Acceleration Data have been added as of 1/12/10 - Ed.


Re:Noah's Arc..Dynamic Roll Resonance analysis

by Allen Williams on Tue 28 Jul 2009 01:16 PM CDT | Profile | Permanent Link

Attachment 2 is the first part of the dynamic analysis of the Arc under different sea and wave conditions. The first section is roll resonance in beam sea conditions.

This attachment will be updated as additional simulation results become available

Noah's Arc..Dynamic Heave Resonance analysis

by Anonymous on Sun 03 Jan 2010 01:03 PM CST | Permanent Link

Attachment 2 has now been upgraded to reflect Heave resonance tests under four distinct sea conditions. It includes acceleration, i.e. dy/dt effects on structural integrity.

Further sea tests under wind loading conditions are forthcoming as time permits.

Noah's Arc..Coincident Heave and Roll Resonance effects on Dowel Pin Fasteners

by Anonymous on Tue 11 May 2010 09:37 AM CDT | Permanent Link

The Arcs wooden fasteners have been evaluated for Heave and Roll Resonance effects:

In the event of a coincident heave force occurring during some portion of an Arc roll, additional stress is transmitted to the wooden dowel fasteners. Although such dowels have been used in the construction of a wide variety of joints, which resist axial, shear, moment and torsion forces, the dowel pins are subjected only to axial or shear forces here. Torsion forces are avoided.

Re:Noah's Arc..biblical legend or scientific reality?

by Anonymous on Sat 18 Feb 2012 09:49 AM CST | Permanent Link

The 'Wind-Sea effects on Arc Arc stability' attachment has been added.



Cold Facts on Global Warming: Global temperature caused by doubling atmospheric CO2 is bounded by an upper limit of 1.4-2.7 degrees centigrade

{The article below supports the observation that Anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide are not significantly affecting either global warming or climate change. These man made sources of CO2 are calculated and documented in Global Warming or global fraud? This is an abridged version of the original T. J. Nelson piece, still quite lengthy but well worth the read. It is reprinted by permission of the author. The complete article is available here. - Ed. }

Photo above: Absorption of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation by various gases in the atmosphere. Most of the ultraviolet light (below 0.3 microns) is absorbed by ozone (O3) and oxygen (O2). Carbon dioxide has three large absorption bands in the infrared region at about 2.7, 4.3, and 15 microns. Water has several absorption bands in the infrared, and even has some absorption well into the microwave region. {Peixoto, J.P. and Oort, A.H., Physics of Climate, Springer, 1992, p. 118.}



by T. J. Nelson

What is the contribution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide to global warming? This question has been the subject of many heated arguments, and a great deal of hysteria. In this article, we will consider a simple calculation, based on well-accepted facts, that shows that the expected global temperature increase caused by doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is bounded by an upper limit of 1.4-2.7 degrees centigrade. This result contrasts with the results of the IPCC's climate models, whose projections are shown to be unrealistically high.

There is general agreement that the Earth is naturally warmed to some extent by atmospheric gases, principally water vapor, in what is often called a "greenhouse effect". The Earth absorbs enough radiation from the sun to raise its temperature by 0.5 degrees per day, but is theoretically capable of emitting sufficient long-wave radiation to cool itself by 5 times this amount. The Earth maintains its energy balance in part by absorption of the outgoing longwave radiation in the atmosphere, which causes warming.

On this basis, it has been estimated that the current level of warming is on the order of 33 degrees C. That is to say, in the absence of so-called greenhouse gases, the Earth would be 33 degrees cooler than it is today, or about 255 K (-0.4° F). Of these greenhouse gases, water is by far the most important. Although estimates of the contribution from water vapor vary widely, most sources place it between 90 and 95% of the warming effect, or about 30-31 of the 33 degrees. Carbon dioxide, although present in much lower concentrations than water, absorbs more infrared radiation than water on a per-molecule basis and contributes about 84% of the total non-water greenhouse gas equivalents, or about 4.2-8.4% of the total greenhouse gas effect.

The 33 degree increase in temperature is not caused simply by absorption of radiation but mostly by the Earth's adaptation to higher temperatures, which includes secondary effects such as increased water vapor, cloud formation, and changes in albedo or surface reflectivity caused by melting and aging of snow and ice. Accurately calculating the relative contribution of each of these components presents major difficulties.

Traditionally, greenhouse gas levels are presented as dimensionless numbers representing parts per billion (ppb) multiplied by a scaling factor (global warming potential- GWP) that allows their relative efficiency of producing global temperature increases to be compared. For carbon dioxide, this scaling factor is 1.0. The factors for methane and nitrous oxide are 21 and 310, respectively, while sulfur hexafluoride is 23,900 times more effective than carbon dioxide. The GWP from carbon dioxide is primarily due to the position of its absorption bands in the critical longwave infrared region at 2, 3, 5, and 13-17 micrometers.

Methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, CFCs and other miscellaneous gases absorb radiation even more efficiently than carbon dioxide, but are also present at much lower concentrations. Their high GWP results from their molecular structure which makes them absorb strongly and at different wavelengths from water vapor and carbon dioxide. For example, although ozone is usually thought of as an absorber of ultraviolet radiation, it also absorbs longwave infrared at 9.6 micrometers. These gases account for another 1.3% of the natural greenhouse gas effect. The increase in the global energy balance caused by greenhouse gases is called "radiative forcing".

The GWP of a greenhouse gas is the ratio of the time-integrated radiative forcing from 1 kg of the gas in question compared to 1 kg of carbon dioxide. These GWP values are calculated over a 100 year time horizon and take into consideration not only the absorption of radiation at different wavelengths, but also the different atmospheric lifetimes of each gas and secondary effects such as effects on water vapor. For some gases, the GWP is too complex to calculate because the gas participates in complex chemical reactions. Most researchers use the GWPs compiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

Even though most of the so-called greenhouse effect is caused by water vapor, about 1-2 degrees of our current empirically-measured temperature of roughly 288 K (59° F) can be attributed to carbon dioxide. Water vapor is at least 99.99% of 'natural' origin, which is to say that no amount of deindustrialization could ever significantly change the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. Thus, climatologists have concentrated mostly on carbon dioxide and methane.

Figures from the U.S. Department of Energy show that the pre-industrial baseline of carbon dioxide is 288,000 ppb. The total current carbon dioxide is 368,400 parts per billion, or 0.0368% of the atmosphere. The ocean and biosphere possess a large buffering capacity, mainly because of carbon dioxide's large solubility in water. Because of this, it's safe to conclude that the anthropogenic component of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will continue to remain roughly proportional to the rate of carbon dioxide emissions and therefore is in no danger of being saturated, which would allow all the emitted carbon dioxide to go into the atmosphere.

Of course, climate, like weather, is complex, nonlinear, and perhaps even chaotic. Increased solar irradiation can lower the albedo, which would amplify any effect caused by changes in solar flux, making the relation between radiation and temperature greater than linear.

Increased temperatures also cause increased evaporation of sea water, which can cause warming because of water's greenhouse effect, and also can affect the radiation flux by creating additional clouds.

The arithmetic of absorption of infrared radiation also works to decrease the linearity. Absorption of light follows a logarithmic curve -->

Figure 1: Transmitted light is a logarithmic function of concentration. This curve is the familiar Beer's Law.

as the amount of absorbing substance increases. It is generally accepted that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is already high enough to absorb almost all the infrared radiation in the main carbon dioxide absorption bands over a distance of only a few km. Thus, even if the atmosphere were heavily laden with carbon dioxide, it would still only cause an incremental increase in the amount of infrared absorption over current levels.

The net effect of all these processes is that doubling carbon dioxide would not double the amount of global warming. In fact, the effect of carbon dioxide is roughly logarithmic. Each time carbon dioxide (or some other greenhouse gas) is doubled, the increase in temperature is less than the previous increase. The reason for this is that, eventually, all the longwave radiation that can be absorbed has already been absorbed. It would be analogous to closing more and more shades over the windows of your house on a sunny day -- it soon reaches the point where doubling the number of shades can't make it any darker.

What does saturation mean?

The "saturation" argument does not mean that global warming doesn't occur. What saturation tells us is that exponentially higher levels of CO2 would be needed to produce a linear increase in absorption, and hence temperature. This is basic physics. Beer's law has not been repealed. CO2 is very nearly homogeneous throughout the atmosphere, so its concentration (as a percentage of the total) is about the same at all altitudes.

The presence or absence of water vapor has no bearing on whether radiation is absorbed by CO2. Water vapor is a red herring: it has essentially no effect on what CO2 does. Where water vapor becomes important is in the earth's response to CO2.

Saturation does not tell us whether CO2 can raise the atmospheric temperature, but it gives us a powerful clue about the shape of the curve of temperature vs. concentration.

Linear Climate projections:

The linear projection shown here, while obviously simplistic, is a more straightforward argument than those used in climate models, because it does not treat the radiative forcing caused by carbon dioxide separately from the planet's adaptation to it. In other words, we did not just build a model and add carbon dioxide, but instead took numbers that are based on empirical measurements and extended them by a small percentage.

Figure 2: Estimated greenhouse gas-induced global warming plotted against greenhouse gas concentrations expressed as a percentage of current-day values. The black curve is a linear extrapolation calculated from the DOE estimates of total current greenhouse gases. The sharp jump at the right is the data point from one computer model that predicts a nine degree increase from doubling current levels of carbon dioxide.

From the numbers, it is easy to calculate, assuming a linear dependence of temperature on greenhouse gas concentrations, that a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide

would produce an additional warming of (0.042 to 0.084) x 33 = 1.38 to 2.77 degrees centigrade.

Our calculation also assumes that the increase in temperature is linearly proportional to the greenhouse gas levels. However, as indicated above, the relationship is not linear, but logarithmic. A plot of temperature vs. gas concentration (expressed as a percentage of current-day levels) would be a convex curve, something like the blue curve in Figure 2. Thus, 1.4-2.7 degrees is an upper bound, and depending on the exact shape of the blue curve, could be an overestimate of the warming effect.

This 1.4-2.7 degree estimate is comparable to the estimate of 1.4 degrees associated with the "empiricist" school of the University of Delaware, University of Virginia, and Arizona State University. An increase of 1.4 degrees was also predicted by P.J. Michaels and R.C. Balling using the NCAR Community Climate Model 3 model, after the large increases in projected carbon dioxide in the original paper in which the model was described were replaced with more realistic ones.

Because a linear increase in temperature requires an exponential increase in carbon dioxide (thanks to the physics of radiation absorption described above), we know that the next two-fold increase in CO2 will produce exactly the same temperature increase as the previous two-fold increase. Although we haven't had a two-fold increase yet, it is easy to calculate from the observed values what to expect.

Between 1900 and 2000, atmospheric CO2 increased from 295 to 365 ppm, while temperatures increased about 0.57 degrees C (using the value cited by Al Gore and others). It is simple to calculate the proportionality constant (call it 'k') between the observed increase in CO2 and the observed temperature increase:

This shows that doubling CO2 over its current values should increase the earth's temperature by about 1.85 degrees C. Doubling it again would raise the temperature another 1.85 degrees C. Since these numbers are based on actual measurements, not models, they include the effects of amplification. These estimates assume that the correlation between global temperature and carbon dioxide is causal in nature. Therefore, the 1.85 degree estimate should also be regarded as an upper limit.

Figure 3: Calculated Temperature rise as a function of CO2 concentration.

It goes without saying that the results shown here depend on the accuracy of the original 33 degree estimate and the validity of extrapolating the existing curve out by an additional small increment. However, we can check the plausibility of the IPCC's result by asking the following question: Instead of 33 degrees, what number would result if we calculated backwards from the IPCC estimates?

Using the same assumption of linearity, if a 9 degree increase resulted from the above-mentioned increase of greenhouse gas levels, the current greenhouse gas level (which is by definition 100%) would be equivalent to a greenhouse gas-induced temperature increase of at least 107 degrees C. This means the for the 9 degree figure to be correct, the current global temperature would have to be at least 255 + 107 - 273 = 89 degrees centigrade, or 192° Fahrenheit! A model that predicts a current-day temperature well above the highest-ever observed temperature is clearly in need of serious tweaking.

What about secondary effects, such as ice melting, changes in albedo, and so forth? Doesn't this increase the predicted temperature beyond the 1.39 to 1.76 degree estimate? In short, no. Because these calculations are based on observed measurements, they automatically take into account all of the earth's responses. Whatever way the climate adapted to past CO2 increases, whether through melting, changes in albedo, or other effects, is already reflected in the measured temperature.

Some climatologists, making assumptions about ever increasing rates of carbon dioxide production, assert that the doubling will occur within a few decades instead of a few centuries. However, they are doing sociology, not climatology. The only honest way to estimate the change of CO2 levels is by using a simple linear extrapolation; otherwise, we are merely indulging in speculation about future social trends. At the current rate of increase, CO2 will not double its current level until 2255.

Conclusions:

Although carbon dioxide is capable of raising the Earth's overall temperature, the IPCC's predictions of catastrophic temperature increases produced by carbon dioxide have been challenged by many scientists. In particular, the importance of water vapor is frequently overlooked by environmental activists and by the media.

The above discussion shows that the large temperature increases predicted by many computer models are unphysical and inconsistent with results obtained by basic measurements. Skepticism is warranted when considering computer-generated projections of global warming that cannot even predict existing observations.


{T. J. Nelson is a practicing research scientist at a non-profit institute affiliated with a large University. - Ed.}


Fibonacci's Golden Mean…Evidence of Design or Evolution?

by Allen Williams


We have often heard from evolutionists that those holding the view that life is a product of Intelligent Design are ‘Creobots’ or ‘ID’iots, as if there was nothing more than one’s emotions or a less evolved intellect in order to consider the possibility of design rather than natural selection.

Evolutionist, Richard Dawkins claims, that the ‘God delusion’ is behind the notion of design and purpose to mankind and its surroundings. Is this true? The field of mathematics is a highly structured and orderly application of human reason and logic, which did not evolve but was developed through incisive thought and mathematical tests.

The principles of mathematics developed through observation and the desire to quantify what was observed. It’s definitions, identities, and axioms define an absolute truth, which is unerring and undeviating, and is the basis that establishes the theorems of application. The foundation of Mathematics rests on logic and is a "deductive study of numbers, geometry and various abstract constructs". - Columbia Encyclopedia, 1991. So, how is the mental reasoning that allows truth to be discovered in the world of numbers, suddenly flawed when it comes to discovering the truth of an Intelligent Designer?

One evolutionist claims that "Real life is not binary, it uses real numbers (I’m not saying that binary numbers aren’t real, but that real life can use rational and irrational numbers). At the core, proofs in biology are not different from proofs in mathematics. "

Really? Well, then if real life can use irrational numbers to represent physical phenomena then it can equally utilize binary numbers, i.e. ‘0, 1’ to describe the state of certain life conditions. After all, what is life or death but a binary function? You’re either alive or dead, there isn’t any in-between. Now according to this evolutionist’s statement, if numbers in life forms can be shown to be real and part of a family, then that would constitute evidence for the existence of an Intelligent Designer as it would for the existence and validity of a mathematical theorem.

In Fermat’s Last Theorem, where equations of the form xn +yn = zn, have been shown to be irreducible and modular, therefore part of a family of elliptic curves. So, is there any biological evidence of some common mathematical relationship in living plants and animals? If not, then this would tend to support evolution’s notion of randomness in creating life but if so, then design is inferred.

An Italian mathematician by the name of Leonardo Fibonacci or more properly, Leonardo da Pisa brought the modern decimal numbering system to Europe in 1200 AD. His travels as a merchant throughout Algeria, Syria, Greece, etc., brought him into contact with the Arabian number or 10 based number system. He is best known for a simple mathematical series introduced in his publication, Liber Abaci, named as Fibonacci numbers in his honor. The series begins with zero and each successive number is the sum of the last two, i.e. 0 + 1 = 1 and 1 + 1 = 2, etc. 0, 1, 1, 2, 3 , 5 , 8, 13, 21, 34, 55 and so on defines the series.

A unique attribute of the series is that dividing a number by the preceding smaller one yields a ratio called the ‘golden mean’ or ‘divine number’, as it is called. It’s the ratio of the current number in the Fibonacci series, i.e. x(n+1) divided by the previous number x(n), i.e. 55/34 = 1.6176. This number series can be visualized as a group of boxes or rectangles as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 – Fibonacci Blocks

Now, consider the line segment, 'ac'


               a                                                b                                                         c


If we postulate that there exists an optimum ratio, i.e. height to width, which may be represented by the line segment above. We can pick an arbitrary point along the line to represent this optimum, called 'b', then: ab/bc = bc/ac

An optimum ratio is an ideal length relationship between line segments. Such a relationship might be expected to be more than simply an interesting intellectual exercise. The line segment ratio in our example is the length of bc to ab. Now if we set ab = 1 and let x represent the segment bc, we have:

1/x = x/(1+x)

(1 + x) = x2. This can be put into standard quadratic form as:

x2 – x –1 = 0 with a root of 1 + Sqrt(5)/2 = 1.618, or the golden ratio. The equation may also be expressed in terns of its coefficients:

x2 - (b/a)x – 1 = 0 where a = 1 and b= x.

The term (b/a) approaches a finite limit for the series as the Fibonacci ratio approaches infinity:

LIM [(b/a)] -> µ = 1.618. This relationship is also found to exist in angle groups as well as lines.

This remarkable property is by no means restricted to the series developed by Leonardo Fibonacci but occurs in limitless mathematical sequences. For example take the polar coordinate axes, 0, Pi/6, Pi/4, Pi/3, Pi/2, 2Pi/3, 3Pi/4, 5Pi/6, Pi, 7Pi/6, 5Pi/4, and so on. A Fibonacci series can be created from the polar axes themselves by adding together the last two numbers to get the next one in the sequence, which are: 0.79, 0.79, 1.84, 2.63, 4.47, 7.10, 11.57, 18.67, 30.24, 48.91, 79.15, and so on. A plot of the sequence is shown in Figure 2. 

This length to width relationship produces what is referred to as the ‘golden rectangle.’ It occurs time and again throughout nature, in the human body, as well as the animal and plant world. Note its similarity to both the Fibonacci spiral and the seashell of Figures 5 & 6 respectively.

"Phideas, the Greek sculptor and many others in Greece and Egypt used this relationship in creating their works of art and architecture.

Furthermore the ratio and the golden spiral are ubiquitous throughout creation", so says Frederick A. Willson in "Ubiquity of the Divine" (Golden) Ratio and Fibonacci Numbers Throughout the Heavens and Earth." See also: http://plus.maths.org/issue3/fibonacci

Figure 3 shows the plot of progressive (b/a) calculations of the polar axes as determined from the polar series of Figure 2. Note that this series limit is the predicted 1.618, the same ratio as our line segment, 'a-c' above demonstrates.

"The Golden Mean or Phi occurs frequently in nature and it may be that humans are genetically programmed to recognize the ratio as being pleasing. Studies of top fashion models revealed that their faces have an abundance of the 1.618 ratio." – Frederick A. Willson in "Ubiquity of the Divine." See: Fibonacci Numbers in nature

Human DNA

Human DNA exhibits this same divine number or golden mean. The double helix structure of DNA shown in Figure 4, measures 34 angstroms long by 21 angstroms wide for each full cycle. So, 34/21 = 1.619. The length between major and minor grooves, the blue and yellow line), exhibits this same 1.618 ideal ratio.

Human DNA: http://goldennumber.net/dna.htm

Figure 4. – Human DNA
(Photo: Double Helix)

Francis Crick, the discoverer of the double helix structure of DNA has calculated the probability that such a complicated molecular string could have formed on its own as essentially zero. The biological code written into the human cell would fill 1,600 pages.

There is as much information in the cell as is contained in 600 encyclopedias. Cell mechanics are also extremely complex: "Life at the molecular level is composed of tiny machinesThere are more machines inside the human body than all the combined factories of the world… There are 2 trillion chemical processes that take place in the human cell." - Michael Behe, ‘Darwin's Black Box’.

Genetics has shown that mankind is all ONE blood (Acts 17:26) requiring no more than a 0.012% variation in DNA to account for all the outward physical characteristics, including skin color.

It seems a stretch to the logical mind that evolution not only produces life by random acts of chance but has also produced it in an optimal aspect ratio of length to width, i.e. 1.618: 1. In one case, natural selection's chance combinations purportedly create life through confusion, while on the other hand, we have evidence of Intelligent Design as noted in I Corinthians 14:33, which states that "For God is not the author of confusion.."

Intelligent Design’s ‘Anthropic Principle’ suggests that there are a series of optimum constants necessary to support life, one of which is the spiral galaxy. There are three basic galactic forms, elliptical, irregular and spiral. However, only spiral galaxies have a near round orbit capable of supporting life.

Figure 5 – Spiral Galaxy
(Photo: Ursa Major)

The golden mean in spiral galaxies: http://www.wisdomportal.com/Geometry/SpiralPage.html

Many plants exhibit the Fibonacci series in petals, leaves, sections and seeds: http://goldennumber.net/plants.htm Fibonacci numbers are also found in living organisms including the cochlea of the human ear: http://www.world-mysteries.com/sci_17.htm

Figure 6 - Fibonacci Spiral
(Photo: Nautilus Construct)

Using the blocks of Figure 1, we may construct an idealized spiral by drawing a series of lines through the diagonals of each of the Fibonacci squares and then connecting them with a series of smooth curves or chords as shown in Figure 5.

The resulting figure looks remarkably like the Nautilus seashell of Figure 7. 

Figure 7: Nautilus Shell (Photo: http://www.sacredarch.com/sacred_geo_exer_shell.htm )


Matter, Chance and Time are the trinity of evolution. And so, unique mathematical relationships conflict with material science’s assertion that there are no absolute truths. The fact that a unique aspect ratio is so pervasive through out nature is strong evidence of intentional design rather than chance combinations in matter as evolutionist’s have asserted.




Evolution's Better Arguments…but are they?

by Allen Williams


Evolutionists regularly invent new fantasy stories to account for the material existence of the universe. Often these stories are discontinuous threads looking at one segment of the universe while ignoring all others. Evolution's explanations seek to satisfy any immediate threats to the theory rather than to meet the overall system constraints which limit it.

The evolutionary mindset is entrenched, often fanatical in its denial of any possibility of Intelligent Design having created the universe despite the mental gymnastics that have to be performed to deny the obvious. The Anthropic principle states among other things that free bodies in space must conserve angular momentum, i.e. when a body breaks apart, the fragments spin in the same direction as the parent. Evolutionists disagree claiming:

"As for the angular momentum problem, that only deals with how the solar system formed. A lot has happened in the last few billion years. In the case of Earth, it was smashed by a proto-planet the size of Mars that gouged out enough material to make the moon. Something similar happened to Venus, except in Venus’s case it was a glancing blow near one of the poles that caused the planet to flip over, making it seem to turn the other way. It is actually still turning the same way, it is just the axis of rotation has flipped. Something similar happened to Uranus, which is now laying on its side (90 degree flip). And let me ask you, why would a creator decide to randomly flip some arbitrary planet over? What possible purpose could that serve?">

Be sure and remember angular momentum only deals with how the universe was formed the next time you inadvertently step in front of a bus. If the moon, with a mass one fourth that of the earth, were torn away in a planetary collision how are both objects relatively round given the vacuum of space? And only one heavenly body rotates and only one has an atmosphere after the collision?

How does something 'seem' to rotate in the opposite direction to the earth? It either does or doesn't. Amazingly, this ‘glancing blow’ collision that causes Venus to 'seem' to rotate in the opposite direction leaves no other indication of its existence, i.e no asteroid fragments or moon to orbit it. It simply disappears into the Sun’s gravity or careens off into deep space. And, this favored collision doesn’t involve conservation of angular momentum because the universe was already formed. How stupid is this!?

Perhaps an ordinary pocket watch holds the secret as to why a Creator might have flipped the rotation of a planet. Just as a watch’s gears turn in opposite directions to track time, so too might the universe be considered a giant clock propelled by gravity.

However, evolution's’ response as to why the earth and moon are round after the collision and earth’s atmosphere is intact is:

"That is because it melted Earth’s crust... I suppose you have never heard of gravity. It is something that causes objects to be attracted towards each other. It also causes objects that are large enough to form into spheres, or roughly spheres, since that shape minimizes the distance of any point from the center. Our atmosphere also has much less Nitrogen than the other planets. It seems like some huge catastrophe came along and stripped it all away... Of course water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen were trapped underground and escaped over time, but our atmosphere is still completely different than it should be compared to other planets, assuming there wasn’t some massive event that changed it."

Any gravitational force strong enough to ‘round off’ the jagged edges of a collision in the vacuum of free space would be strong enough to hold an atmosphere, yet only the earth has an atmosphere.

So the earth’s crust fused on impact with the ‘proto-sized’ planet right after the moon broke off but none of the life-giving atmosphere was torn away in the process. When one drops something, there is always more than one fragment, how fortuitous for evolution that either all the fragments ‘recombined’ to form the moon or only one piece broke off.

The evolutionist further notes that the atmosphere was all safely 'tucked' under the crust, a crust that fused all around the globe, not just at the point of impact. However, this scenario doesn’t resolve well with the evidence of large meteorites that have struck the earth in the past. They didn’t fuse the earth’s crust at the point of impact, they just created a big hole.

The 'fused crust' then allowed the trapped water and atmosphere to escape millions of years later when either the nitrogen selectively leaked away without any of the water or oxygen along with it. Or, the Nitrogen leaked away during some other future catastrophic event, which also didn’t result in the loss of water or oxygen which violates the known laws of diffusion.

And, of course, the tremendous hydrostatic pressure that would have developed under the earth’s fused crust in the entrapment of atmospheric gases and water not only didn’t split the earth apart but escaped slowly to form the air and sea. And, that collision neither changed earth’s orbit around the sun nor resulted in the heating or cooling of its molten core. And, don't miss the other equally improbable scenario, that molecules of gas 'leaked' out of the rocks over millions of years to slowly form an atmosphere after gravity had 're-rounded' the earth from the departure of the moon. Of course, the nitrogen escaped first because of its lower molecular weight as the earth wasn't fully round yet. {Excuse me while I laugh.}

Interestingly enough, evolutionists concede that green house gases were present in the atmosphere long before the appearance of man. How many years does it take to evolve from an amoeba to homo sapiens? Who was around to record the global warming?

"I should also point out that there are a great many chemical similarities between the Earth and the Moon."

But, the moon didn’t evolve an oxygen containing atmosphere millions of years later as earth did nor did other planets in this solar system. So, what other similarities matter?

Evolutionists regard logic as something true for only a finite portion of time rather than always, a necessary condition to allow the fitting of separate and otherwise incompatible event threads. So, in their world, the ‘null’ hypothesis has no real meaning, i.e. ‘A’ and ‘NOT ‘A’ , nor does the concept of falsification of any hypothesis: "

"Here’s a little experiment to try: Take three bowls of water. Add ice cubes to the first to make it nice and cold. Add some heat to the third to make it nice and warm. Let the second one remain at room temperature. Place your left hand in the first bowl and your right hand in the third, and leave them there for a bit. Say, a minute or so. Then put them both in the middle bowl. Voila! The middle bowl is both hot and cold! If hot is A, then the middle bowl is both A and NOT A!"

What kind of nonsense is this? Temperature is not measured by sensory perception; it’s measured through bodies in thermal equilibrium according to the Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Ask the Doctor to stick his finger in you rather than using his digital thermometer next time you’re sick. If ‘A’ is true, then ‘Not A’ is always false for the chosen case, not just for a finite period. This is the confusion that the 'no absolute' truth teaching brings to public education.

Next we have evolution's perversion of the 2nd and 3rd laws of thermodynamics:

"Or are you misusing the Second Law? That’s usually more typical. Creationists love to ignore the fact that if their "decay of everything" version of the Second Law was true, you couldn’t even grow wheatgrass in a cup, because wheatgrass has, like, information in it. Maybe God has to prop up even wheatgrass development in this whole physics-derived field of Okami evil spirit-like cursed decay."

Energy must be in a form that can be utilized by the recipient; otherwise we could all live on sunlight rather than organic nourishment. While plants do utilize the sun as an energy source, the gases they exchange increases entropy to the surroundings.

There's nothing stated in either the second or third law that says decay prevents growth of living organisms. The only requirement for growth is that the energy input be greater than the energy exhausted to the sink. Entropy is merely an indication of the energy decay experienced by that system, living or not. And, the fact that the sun imparts entropy to its surroundings doesn’t alter the fact that the earth is still decaying.

The best argument came from a response to the second half of the second law of thermodynamics or Nerst’s postulation, governing evolutionary processes, {update 5/2/12 - i.e. 2(b).

"It is the second law of thermodynamics that Creationists do not understand. The third simply states that the other two laws only apply at temperatures above absolute zero. The second law says that total entropy can only go down in a closed system. But the Earth is not a closed system, every tiny drop in entropy here is compensated for many times over by the constant, massive increase in entropy in the sun. You know, it being a massive nuclear fireball and all."

As a matter of fact, '2b' states that "..a system will move in the direction that increases the entropy of the system or the universe." This means that the net change in entropy, ‘Sin – S'out must be greater than or equal to zero. The term 'total' entropy as used by the evolutionist is a deception, inferring that 'Sin – S'out can be less than zero. How is a cooling body a net decease in entropy? And, is not the Sun decaying through its fusion reactions in radiating energy to space?

{update 2/12/09} The evolutionist's 'closed system' term is a misnomer. If entropy could only decrease in closed or ordered systems then how does snow melt? The answer is that the state condition depends on the net change in dS, or Sin – S'out. The evolutionist ignores the enthalpy, 'H' of the surroundings. Evolution requires 'spontaneity' for its abiogenesis changes to take place which can only occur through the generation of new entropy by the system, closed or open. It cannot utilize existing entropy from the environment, i.e. S>0 as it can with enthalpy, 'H' or 'dS' itself must be greater than zero. However, it can acquire necessary reaction energy from its surroundings and be spontaneous if 'H-TS' is an absolute minimum. Spontaneous atmospheric reactions like the open air oxidation (of carbon monoxide, CO to carbon dioxide and acid rain , i.e. 2NO + O2 -> 2NO2 occur because the 'H-TS' change produces a positive entropy, 'dS' as required by the 2nd law. Otherwise, neither would be an environmental problem.

The earth’s rotation has been shown to have slowed, loss in kinetic energy, over the last 6000 years and the atmosphere continues to radiate heat to free space according to the second law relationship, i.e. dq/T. Otherwise, everything would burn up from the accumulated energy input by the sun. Next, the evolutionist states:

"Look around next time it is snowing. Snow is a much lower entropy state for water to be in compared to the water vapor that it started at. Yet snow forms. The same goes for crystals, ice, water, and many other ordered systems that form spontaneously in nature. The same principles that allow these system to reduce their entropy also allows life to reduce its entropy."

The crystalline state of any substance in either a closed or open system doesn’t suspend the second law {2(b)} because  the net change in ‘S’ is simply zero not less than zero. If the net change in were found to be less than zero for a living organism or system then Nerst’s postulate would be invalid. There is no empirical or physical evidence that supports such a claim since the inception of the law. How can one reduce his entropy without bringing about death? Hypothermia certainly zeros out your entropy.

Evolution theory breaks under the sheer weight of its own convoluted arguments.




ID's Anthropic Principle

by Allen Williams


What exactly is the Anthropic Principle you might ask? The Anthropic or Goldilocks principle if you prefer, is a theory that claims Intelligence is behind the structure and order of the Cosmos. It infers a precise set of conditions that must develop in a specific order for life to exist.

Brandon Carter, an astrophysicist from Cambridge University presented a paper in which he describes certain strange and inexplicable behavior in the world of particle physics and astronomy. They seemed to indicate that the whole universe had been constructed and maintained for the purpose of bringing into existence, intelligent life. This means, "..that all of the seemingly arbitrary and unrelated constants in physics have one strange thing in common, these are precisely the values you need if you want to have a universe capable of producing life." Sir Isaac Newton put it this way, "The most beautiful system of the Sun, planets and comets could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful being."

The Anthropic Principle defines a solar architecture and set of conditions that must be exact in sequence and function for life to exist in any solar system. If a galaxy has too many stars then the elements of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen etc., can not form from the proton rich radiation. If there are not enough stars, then only hydrogen and helium will form.

The ideal galaxy configuration for life sustaining conditions occurs in spiral galaxies. Spiral galaxies with a certain kind of bulge offer the most stable planetary orbit about a star. However, no more than 2% of the stars in the universe have orbiting planets.

Spiral Galaxy

The orbits of the planets in our own solar system are nearly round and planar, i.e. two dimensional, including the moon, and optimally positioned to support the eco-life of earth. The moon is exactly in the right position to stabilize the earth's rotation and to facilitate oxygenation of the seas via the rise and fall of the tides. Planets in nearby solar systems have elliptical orbits, making the sustenance of life more difficult.

Most spiral galaxies observed are ellipsoid so just 6% of the galaxies in the universe are the right kind of spiral. If the ‘bulge’ in the arch of the spiral is too large, the life-supporting planet receives too much deadly proton radiation from nearby stars. Insufficient arch in the spiral causes disruptive gravitational forces and elliptical orbits around a sun. And, not enough cosmic dust for the formation of new planets occurs under such conditions. A 100,000 light years defines an optimal bulge.

Gas, dust and newly formed stars occur in the spiral arm as well as the heavy elements.

Life conditions are most favorable when the planet is located along this spiral 'arm' as is the earth. This area contains sufficient gas, dust and a 'just right' number of stars to ensure the formation of key elements such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and iron etc. to sustain life. Fluorine, an essential element in the formation of certain proteins is only formed in the binary part of a White Dwarf.

Iron, Sulfur, Copper and Silver are formed from dying stars. Heavy elements are generated when stars go Super Nova. The dead Stars then bequeath their ashes to the formation of new stars and planets.

Dead Stars ---> ashes---> New stars and planets

There are some 202 physical conditions that must be ‘just right’ to sustain life. If this precise set of conditions defining and regulating planetary orbit were absent or was to occur out of sequence, life as we know it could not exist or would be vastly different. For example, If there was a 1% difference in the sun’s mass, the only possible life on earth would be bacteria. If the earth was one half percent closer to the sun all water would evaporate. The dew point would be elevated and a huge desert would be created. If the earth was one half-percent farther away from the sun, all its water would be frozen.

If the nuclear strong force between atoms were greater by just two percent, protons could not have formed, resulting in a universe without atoms. But, if the nuclear strong force were weaker by five percent, ours would be a universe without stars.

The probability that all-202 conditions would align to create life from random processes

Based on Darwin’s natural selection is one chance in 10217 power.To understand this a bit better, imagine that you have 10 pennies in your pocket sequentially numbered. The probability that you could reach into your pocket and pull out all ten pennies in exact numerical sequence is one chance in a billion. Probabilities of1080 are generally considered impossible.

Ann Coulter, author of 5 best sellers including, "Godless: The Church of Liberalism" has noted, "Evolution isn’t just a theory with a gap in the evidence, the whole theory is a gap." Here are some of the many ‘gaps’ in the theory:

  • The star Cyrus was described as a Red Dwarf in the writings of Ptolemy and others but today it is a White Dwarf. The transition from Red to White Dwarf took just 1700 years. Evolution claims this transition requires 100,000 years.
  • Nickel is a scarce element on earth. However micro meteors are rich in nickel. If the earth is millions of years old, then the geological column should contain nickel from meteor impact. The nickel in the geological column would wash down to the ocean over time from the actions of rain. However, no micro meteors were found in the geological column or nickel in core drills of the ocean's floor.
  • The ocean is getting saltier by the year. If the earth is millions of years old, then why hasn’t the maximum salt-water solubility been reached?
  • There should be more Helium than Hydrogen in the atmosphere for an old earth because of radioactive decay.

Radioactive dating problems: Potassium-Argon radiometric dating tests on known 168 year old rocks dated at 160 million to 3 billion years.

Egress: Uranium and rubidium salts are water-soluble and can be leached from rocks by water.

Ingress: Rock may contain daughter elements such as Lead 206, 207, 208 when it coalesces.

Intelligent Design is "Creationism in a cheap tuxedo," said Nicholas Matzke, project information specialist for the National Center for Science Education in Oakland, Calif., which advocates for the teaching of evolution." - CBSNews.com 12/19/2004

So ‘real scientists’ aren’t skeptical of Darwin's theory? How about this from "The Silence of Christmas and the Scream of the Tsunami: Soul Speak in a Suicidal Culture." Rev. Ravi Zachiarias notes that"..a rude awakening has come to us as an earthquake of gigantic proportions rocked continents the day after Christmas {2005 tsutsani-Ed.}, and tens of thousands of people were swept into the sea..It is a self-defeating question for the scientific naturalist to ask why this happened because very few animals were lost in the tragedy. They intuitively sensed the danger that approached and fled long before the water could reach the shores."

"What happens to scientific naturalism's theory of evolution here, when creatures on the lower evolutionary scale were smarter than those higher up the scale?...As a matter of fact, I even heard one person say that this is nature's way of balancing the numbers in a crowded world. Naturalism breaks under the weight of its own argument."

Evolution is merely a religion, its proponents worship the evolutionary god of time, chance and matter. Clarrence Darrow (1925 Scopes trial) stated "The idea that we should only teach one theory of Origins is the height of bigotry." The public should be aware that evolution is the only state sanctioned, court protected scientific theory in the history of the United States, forcibly taught in the nation’s public education system, sponsored and approved by the federal courts. See Epperson v. Arkansas, 1968.

Evolution is a profound testimony to the hypocrisy of postmodern science.