The Perfect 46: A “Science Factual” Film about our Near Future

by Jessica Cussins

 

Sitting down to watch the science fiction film The Perfect 46, I had the strange sensation of walking through a hall of mirrors. Intriguingly meta-conscious, and perceptibly close to reality, this film highlights the world of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetics and makes it clear that this technology, now at our real-world doorsteps, could drastically shape our very near future.  [Emphasis - DNI]

The story centers on the aptly named company ThePerfect46, which starts off with a seemingly innocuous mission. Taking advantage of the fact that most Californians have had their genomes sequenced by this undefined point in time, it simply offers to analyze a couple’s genomes alongside each other to determine their ability to have a disease-free child.  

But founder and CEO Jesse Darden isn’t content to stop there. In a move that sparks internal controversy and leads to one staff person abandoning the project, he rolls out version 2.0, which allows the company to search through giant databases and match random people together based solely on their ability to create genetically “ideal” children. The film cuts back and forth between a tense situation unfolding for Darden, flashbacks of his life, and a documentary film made about his rise and fall. 

While The Perfect 46 is a fictional film, it is being promoted by a real-life website purporting to actually sell ThePerfect46 product (kudos for the smart marketing ploy!). 

Darden, played quite well by Whit Hertford, is the star of The Perfect 46. He is a Steve Jobs-esque anti-hero: the disliked techie genius, the man behind the company that aims to improve humanity but ends up causing great harm. Darden comes across as “a tortured genius… a character that can be lauded and loathed in equal measure.” He is romanticized as smart and entrepreneurial, but his considerable personal and inter-personal flaws are never out of view. 

Perhaps by now both Darden and ThePerfect46 sound strangely familiar. If so, it’s probably because the similarities to companies and products that actually exist right now are jarring. This is a kind of science fiction that is only just barely fictional.

In fact, writer and director Brett Ryan Bonowicz calls The Perfect 46 science factual.” He invited a number of researchers to be consultants on the film and strove to show “a respect for science.” The scientific community has applauded his use of “authentic science” and raved about how the film is “a refreshing change of pace” because it doesn’t dissolve into a dystopian nightmare.  Here Bonowicz elaborates on why he pursued this approach,

By making the film as factually accurate as possible, the conversation that the film creates should, I think, spark something that a more futuristic, fantastic treatment perhaps cannot. The topics we cover in the film – genetics, eugenics, the moral and ethical implications of a consumer genetics service, and the role of government vs. a DTC model – are discussions that deserve to be out in the public. This is a film of the moment.

 In fact, you may find reality to be even more bizarre than this particular fiction. Just last year, the infamous DTC genetics company 23andMe received a patent for "gamete donor selection based on genetic calculations." The premise of the technology was that it could allow people to choose a sperm or egg provider based on probabilities of having a child with the kinds of characteristics they desired including “height, eye color, gender, personality characteristics and risk of developing certain types of cancer.” In response to backlash from the media about its “designer baby patent” with drop-down menus of characteristics, 23andMe assured everyone that it no longer had any plans to pursue the full range of possibilities described.

Another company, GenePeeks, has remained undaunted. GenePeeks launched just months ago, founded by molecular biologist Lee Silver, who writes broadly about how positive eugenics is both laudable and inevitable, and Anne Morriss, the mother of a sperm donor-conceived son who inherited the rare recessive disease MCADD.

GenePeeks’ “Matchright” is remarkably similar to the product offered by ThePerfect46For $1995, “GenePeeks digitally combines your DNA and the DNA of potential donor matches to create a preview of thousands of personal genomes that your child could inherit, focusing on a panel of genes involved in childhood health and disease.” Based on this information, you can then preview your personal “catalog” of donors and further weed them out based on your preference for such characteristics as height, eye color, hair color, education level, and ethnicity. 

What GenePeeks hasn’t marketed yet is its ability to test for much more than “health and disease.” But the patent it was awarded in January explicitly lists many non-medical traits: aggression, weight, breast size/shape, drinking behavior, drug abuse, eating behavior, ejaculation function, emotional affect, eye color/shape, hair color, height, learning/memory, mating patterns, sex, skin color/texture, and social intelligence, among others. It is thought to be possible to screen for just some of these traits, but all are covered by the patent.

Furthermore, GenePeeks doesn’t intend to limit its availability to sperm banks. It plans to expand soon and become available for “anyone planning a pregnancy in advance.” Of course, there is at least one fundamental flaw in the methodology of all these schemes: two people can have an infinite number of children with a full range of characteristics. Choosing a “preferred” donor can’t possibly absolve all risk

In fact [spoiler alert], in The Perfect 46, a bug in the company’s algorithm results in the birth of 24 children with a severe genetic disorder. The horrific mistake causes the company to close its doors and forces Darden into solitude, where he continues to develop his work and reflect on what went wrong. What is perhaps most remarkable about the scenario is that no one is ever found to be at fault, even when some of the children die, and at least one suicide results. While Darden is depicted as a broken man, devastated by the fault in a system he designed, he is relatively unmoved by personal stories, including one about a loving couple that divorced after hearing they were “incompatible.” In his mind, “Just because I created something doesn’t mean I’m responsible for how people use it.”

Is this the kind of language that will be used around technologies governing life and death in our market-driven culture? The film probes many such important questions. How quickly does the right to know become the responsibility, or even the requirement, to know? What will people do with this information? And what happens, and who is accountable, when it is wrong? 

(If 23andMe is anything to go by, some information will be wrong.)

Furthermore, can changing the kinds of people who are born really be considered “preventative medicine?” When recommendations about who is “fit” to be born are made by a commercial entity, does the absence of state involvement make the actions less eugenic? Is “perfection” what we ought to strive for? If so, what do we make of the founder – who is anxious, anti-social, awkward, not good-looking, and in the end, in “an irony that was lost on no one,” infertile?

The desire to know and control more, even when the meaning of the knowledge and our ability to control it is imperfect, can be powerful. But while it makes marketing sense for drug and genetic testing companies to pathologize more and more conditions, it probably doesn’t make sense for us. As these technologies become increasingly present in our lives, that point risks getting lost.

GenePeeks has just received $3 million in financing. The concept of adding genetic profiles to dating sites seems to be gaining steam. These trends suggest that this film could well be “more of a glimpse of the future than simply a hypothetical conversation about ethics and genetics.” 

But if The Perfect 46 is “a sort of prequel to Gattaca,” hopefully we will find a way to stop short of that future. 

You can find upcoming screenings of this thought-provoking film here, and check out CGS’s personal genomics news page here. Can you make it through the hall of mirrors, discerning the difference between fiction and reality?



[Note:  The burning question remains:  Can they really decode anyone’s genome?  Answer:  No.

Remember that the “human genome” is defined as the total DNA in both the nucleus and the mitochondria outside the nucleus of a cell.  Aside from the fact that only about 15% of  “THE” Human Genome has still only been decoded (along with problems like individual genomes are unique;  the sample consisted of mixing multiple samples from people around the world;  only the nuclear genes, and only their extrons, were addressed, etc. (see:  http://web.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/index.shtml), what about that part of an individual’s genome provided by the person’s mitochondria?  And what about the 85% of the nuclear genes in an individual’s cells that was called “junk DNA” in the “introns” of those nuclear genes until lately?  Are these “kits” even capable of determining the mitochondria and the “junk DNA” in those “introns”?  See, e.g.: 

--  “DNA is actually not well understood. 97% of human DNA is called ³junk² because scientists do not know its function. The workings of a single cell are so complex, no one knows the whole of it. Yet the biotech companies have already planted millions of acres with genetically engineered crops, and they intend to engineer every crop in the world.”

Genetic Engineering and “Junk” DNA, Genetic Engineering, at:  http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/ramyasekaran-1541143-genetic-engineering/

--  The Astonishing Powers of "Junk" DNA

http://www.khouse.org/enews_article/2012/1982/

--  Most of What you Read was Wrong: How Press Releases Rewrote Scientific History, Center for Genetics and Society, at: 

http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=6390

--  Never-Seen-Before Secret DNA Code And An 'Unusual Meaning'-Scientists Find, at:  http://www.designntrend.com/articles/9627/20131214/never-seen-before-secret-dna-code-unusual-meaning-scientists-find.htm 

-- Junk DNA — Not So Useless After All

“Researchers report on a new revelation about the human genome: it’s full of active, functioning DNA, and it's a lot more complex than we ever thought, at:  http://healthland.time.com/2012/09/06/junk-dna-not-so-useless-after-all/

--  What Junk DNA? It’s an Operating System;  Their report adds to growing experimental support for the idea that all that extra stuff in the human genes, once referred to as “junk DNA,” is more than functionless, space-filling material that happens to make up nearly 98% of the genomehttp://www.genengnews.com/insight-and-intelligenceand153/what-junk-dna-it-s-an-operating-system/77899872/ 

Given that their claims don’t even mention those DNA’s gives an indication that they don’t.  So what does an individual who buys such “kits” really end of knowing about their genome -- and how can any medical or eugenic decisions be based on such “information”?  Indeed, how can any supposed “ideal child” be genetically designed at all?  Is so-called “positive eugenics” a bunch of nonsense?  Perhaps the above, too, is a “discussion that deserves to be out in the public”!  In fact, much of what passes as "genetics research" and the "kits" described below would seem to border on scientific fraud -- and someone should be held legally accountable. The article first appeared here.

Caveat emptor!  --  DNI]



Birth of ‘living materials’ at MIT combines synthetic biology, materials engineering

by Kenrick Vezina

Illustration by Yan Liang, via MIT News.

A team at MIT has combined techniques from synthetic biology and materials engineering to create hybrid “living materials”: bacteria engineered to take up functional nanoparticles and grow into thin layers with usable properties, like electrical conduction or light emission. This achievement is a perfect follow-up to news from earlier this month that another group at MIT had successfully created bionic plants   [Emphasis Others] (Read our Gene-ius post on the news here.)

Anne Trafton, writing for MIT News, reports: 

These “living materials” combine the advantages of live cells, which respond to their environment, produce complex biological molecules, and span multiple length scales, with the benefits of nonliving materials, which add functions such as conducting electricity or emitting light. 

The organic analog of choice is bone. As Amina Kahn at the Los Angeles Times puts it:

 Our bones are remarkable feats of engineering; strong and yet light, shot through with holes and yet able to bear incredible loads. This super-strong natural material is built as cells incorporate hard minerals like calcium into living tissue

The MIT team, led by assistant professor of electrical engineering and biological engineering Timothy Lu, was inspired by this interplay of living cells with nonliving components.

The process Lu and his team used begins with the bacteria E. coli and genetic engineering. They chose E. coli because it naturally produces thin, slimy films that adhere to surfaces — it’s this adhesion that’s key. In order to adhere to surfaces, E. coli produces “curli fibers”, comprised of repeating protein chains.

The MIT team replaced the bacteria’s ability to produce curli fibers with an engineered genetic circuit that only produces curli fibers if given a certain molecule. Now the team essentially has an on-off switch for the bacteria and can control the formation of biofilms: supply the bacteria with the trigger molecule and they produce curli fibers and form biofilms.

On top of this, the team engineered another set of E. coli with a similar on-off switch but based on a different molecular trigger. And these bacteria were modified one step further: researchers altered the genes coding for the creation of curli fibers so that the protein chains would grab on to gold nanoparticles

So they had two varieties of engineered bacteria, both controllable via distinct molecule of their choosing, and one of the two’s ability to latch onto its environment with curli fibers has been co-opted to make the bacteria gather tiny bits of gold from its environment. 

Take both varieties, grow them together; manage their growth relative to one another with the two on-off molecules; and supply some nanoscale bits of gold. The researchers did just this and managed to coax the bacteria to build a tiny film laced through with gold nanowires: a conductive surface comprised of living cells

And the conductive biofilm is just one of several proofs-of-concept to come out of this project. 

The team was also able to embed quantum dots — semiconductor nanoparticles that glow a particular color after being illuminated by light — in their biofilm through a similar technique.

The final success lies in getting their modified cells to communicate with one another, as emphasized by the Christian Science Monitor. The molecular “on-off switches” described above don’t necessarily need to be supplied manually; in fact the researchers produced a third variety of E. coli which naturally produced the chemical trigger, activating the generation of gold-locking curli fibers in the second variety.

The potential applications for these living materials include batteries and solar cells, diagnostic devices and scaffolds for tissue engineering. According to Trafton, “The researchers are also interested in coating the biofilms with enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of cellulose, which could be useful for converting agricultural waste to biofuels.”

This latest breakthrough is sure to be one of many similar efforts that blurs the perceived boundaries between living and nonliving, artificial and organic. We’re increasingly able, as Lu and his team demonstrate, to manipulate our world at the level of molecules and atoms — whether those are DNA molecules or gold nanowiring.

 
Sources:

Additional Resources:




The article first appeared here.

How to build your very own Self-Directed Immortality Avatar for 2045!

by 2045.com


International Manifesto of the "2045" Strategic Social Initiative

Mankind has turned into a consumer society standing at the edge of a total loss of the conceptual guidelines necessary for further evolution. The majority of people are almost exclusively absorbed  in merely maintaining their own comfortable lives.

Modern civilization, with its space stations, nuclear submarines, iPhones and Segways cannot save mankind from the limitations in the physical abilities of our bodies, nor from diseases and death.

We are not satisfied with modern achievements of scientific and technical progress. Science working for the satisfaction of consumer needs will not be able to ensure a technological breakthrough towards a radically different way of life.

We believe that the world needs a different ideological paradigm. Within its framework it is necessary to form a major objective  capable of pointing out a new direction for the development of all mankind and ensuring the achievement of a scientific and technical revolution.  The new ideology should assert, as one of its priorities, the necessity of using breakthrough technology for an improvement of man himself and not only of his environment.

We believe that it is possible and necessary to eliminate aging and even death, and to overcome the fundamental limits of the physical and mental capabilities currently set by the restrictions of the physical body.

Scientists from various countries in the world are already developing technology that ensures the creation of an artificial human body prototype within the next decade. We believe the biggest technological project of our times will become the creation of such artificial human body and a subsequent transfer of individual human consciousness to such a body.

Implementation of this technological project will inevitably result in an explosive development of innovations and global changes in our civilization and will improve human life.

We believe that before 2045 an artificial body will be created that will not only surpass the existing body in terms of functionality, but will achieve perfection of form and be no less attractive than the human body. People will make independent decisions about the extension of their lives and the possibilities for personal development in a new body after the resources of the biological body have been exhausted.

The new human being will receive a huge range of abilities and will be capable of withstanding extreme external conditions easily: high temperatures, pressure, radiation, lack of oxygen, etc. Using a neural-interface humans will be able to operate several bodies of various forms and sizes remotely.

We suggest the implementation of not just a mechanistic project to create an artificial body, but a whole system of views, values and technology which will render assistance to humankind in intellectual, moral, physical, mental and spiritual development.

We invite all interested specialists: scientists, politicians, mass media personalities, philosophers, futurologists and businessmen to join the "2045" strategic social initiative. We welcome all who share our vision of the future and are ready to make the next jump.


THE AVATAR R&D NETWORK OF THE 2045 INITIATIVE

[To the right of the main page, click on “Immortality Button”:  “Click this button to start the development of your personalized immortal Avatar”]

The main objectives of our movement are:

1. To achieve the support of the International community and create conditions for international co-operation of interested specialists around the "2045" Initiative.  

2. To create an international research center for cybernetic immortality to advance practical implementations of the main technical project – the creation of the artificial body and the preparation for subsequent transfer of individual human consciousness to such a body. 
 
3. To engage experts in the selection and support of the most interesting projects in the quest to ensure technological breakthroughs.

4. To support innovative industries and create special scientific education programs for schools and institutes of higher education.

5. To create educational programs for television, radio and internet, to hold forums, conferences, congresses and exhibitions, and to establish awards and produce books, movies and computer games with the view of raising the profile of the initiative and spreading its ideas.

6. To form a culture connected with the ideology of the future, promoting technical progress, artificial intellect, “multi-body”, immortality, and cyborgization.


REQUIREMENTS:


For the registration of your pre-order, please answer the following questions:

Are you 18 or older?

Are you of sound mind so as to bear legal responsibility for your actions?

Do you personally -- yourself or as legal representative -- dispose of the funds required for the development (> $3M) for your avatar?

Have you decided to commission the development of your custom-made immortal avatar?

If you answer “no” to a question, you cannot proceed further 

[Note:  Guess this is yet another way to de-populate the world -- Russian-style.  Note that the Russians charge in U.S. dollars! -- DNI]


Human Experiments: A Chronology of Human Research

by Vera Hassner Shara


6th century B.C.: Meat and vegetable experiment on young Jewish prisoners in Book of Daniel.

5th century B.C: "Primum non nocere" ("First do no harm"), medical ethics standard attributed to Hippocrates. This Oath became obligatory for physicians prior to practicing medicine in the 4th century AD

1st century B.C. Cleopatra devised an experiment to test the accuracy of the theory that it takes 40 days to fashion a male fetus fully and 80 days to fashion a female fetus. When her handmaids were sentenced to death under government order, Cleopatra had them impregnated and subjected them to subsequent operations to open their wombs at specific times of gestation. [http://www.jlaw.com/Articles/NaziMedExNotes.html#1]

12th century: Rabbi and physician Maimonides' Prayer: "May I never see in the patient anything but a fellow creature in pain."

1796 Edward Jenner injects healthy eight-year-old James Phillips first with cowpox then three months later with smallpox and is hailed as discoverer of smallpox vaccine.

1845-1849: J. Marion Sims, "the father of gynecology" performed multiple experimental surgeries on enslaved African women without the benefit of anesthesia. After suffering unimaginable pain, many lost their lives to infection. One woman was made to endure 34 experimental operations for a prolapsed uterus. http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/jm_sims.htm

1865: French physiologist Claude Bernard publishes "Introduction to the Study of Human Experimentation," advising: "Never perform an experiment which might be harmful to the patient even though highly advantageous to science or the health of others."

1896: Dr. Arthur Wentworth performed spinal taps on 29 children at Children's Hospital, Boston, to determine if the procedure was harmful. Dr. John Roberts of Philadelphia, noting the non-therapeutic indication, labeled Wentworth's procedures "human vivisection."

1897: Italian bacteriologist Sanarelli injects five subjects with bacillus searching for a causative agent for yellow fever.

1900: Walter Reed injects 22 Spanish immigrant workers in Cuba with the agent for yellow fever paying them $100 if they survive and $200 if they contract the disease. 

1900: Berlin Code of Ethics. Royal Prussian Minister of Religion, Education, and Medical Affairs guaranteed that: "all medical interventions for other than diagnostic, healing, and immunization purposes, regardless of other legal or moral authorization are excluded under all circumstances if (1) the human subject is a minor or not competent due to other reasons; (2) the human subject has not given his unambiguous consent; (3) the consent is not preceded by a proper explanation of the possible negative consequences of the intervention."http://www.geocities.com/artnscience/00berlincode.pdf

1906: Dr. Richard Strong, a professor of tropical medicine at Harvard, experiments with cholera on prisoners in the Philippines killing thirteen.

1913: Pennsylvania House of Representatives recorded that 146 children had been inoculated with syphilis, "through the courtesy of the various hospitals" and that 15 children in St. Vincent's House in Philadelphia had had their eyes tested with tuberculin. Several of these children became permanently blind. The experimenters were not punished.

1915: A doctor in Mississippi, working for the U.S. Public Health Office produces Pellagra in twelve Mississippi inmates in an attempt to discover a cure for the disease

1919-1922: Testicular transplant experiments on five hundred prisoners at San Quentin.

1927: Carrie Buck of Charlottesville is legally sterilized against her will at the Virginia Colony Home for the Mentally Infirm. Carrie Buck was the mentally normal daughter of a mentally retarded mother, but under the Virginia law, she was declared potentially capable of having a "less than normal child." By the 1930s, seventeen states in the U.S. have laws permitting forced sterilization.  The settlement of Poe v. Lynchburg Training School and Hospital (same institution, different name) in 1981 brought to an end the Virginia law. It is estimated that as many as 10,000 perfectly normal women were forcibly sterilized for "legal" reasons including alcoholism, prostitution, and criminal behavior in general.

1931: Lubeck, Germany, 75 children die in from pediatrician's experiment with tuberculosis vaccine.  

Germany adopts "Regulation on New Therapy and Experimentation" requiring all human experiments to be preceded by animal experiments. This law remained in effect during the Nazi regime.

1931: Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, a pathologist, conducted a cancer experiment in Puerto Rico under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations. Dr. Rhoads has been accused of purposely infecting his Puerto Rican subjects with cancer cells. Thirteen of the subjects died. A Puerto Rican physician uncovered the experiment an investigation covered-up the facts. Despite Rhoads' hand written statements that the Puerto Rican population should be eradicated, Rhoads went on to establish U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and was later named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Rhoads was also responsible for the radiation experiments on prisoners, hospital patients, and soldiers. The American Association for Cancer Research honored him by naming its exemplary scientist award the Cornelius Rhoads Award.

1932-1972: U.S. Public Health Service study in Tuskegee, Alabama of more than 400 black sharecroppers observed for the natural course of untreated syphilis.

1932: Japanese troops invade Manchuria. Dr. Shiro Ishii, a prominent physician and army officer begins preliminary germ warfare experiments. 

1936: Japan's Wartime Human Biowarfare Experimentation Program.

1938: Japan establishes Unit 731 in Pingfan, 25 km. from Harbin. Unit 731, a biological-warfare unit disguised as a water-purification unit, is formed outside the city of Harbin.

1939: Third Reich orders births of all twins be registered with Public Health Offices for purpose of genetic research.  [[One twin experimented on, the other twin used as a genetic “control”. -- DNI]]

1939: Twenty-two children living at the Iowa Soldiers' Orphans' Home in Davenport were the subjects of the "monster" experiment that used psychological pressure to induce children who spoke normally to stutter. It was designed by one of the nation's most prominent speech pathologists, Dr. Wendell Johnson, to test his theory on the cause of stuttering.

1940: Poisonous gas experiments at Unit 731 (Japan). One experiment conducted September 7-10, 1940, on 16 Chinese prisoners who were exposed to mustard gas in a simulated battle situation.

1940-1941: Unit 731 (Japan) used aircraft to spread cotton and rice husks contaminated with the black plague at Changde and Ningbo, in central China. About 100 people died from the black plague in Ningbo as a result.

1940's: In a crash program to develop new drugs to fight Malaria during World War II, doctors in the Chicago area infected nearly 400 prisoners with the disease. Although the Chicago inmates were given general information that they were helping with the war effort, they were not informed about the nature of the experiment. Nazi doctors on trial at Nuremberg cited the Chicago studies as precedents to defend their own research aimed at aiding the German war effort.

1941: Sterilization experiments at Auschwitz.

1941-1945: Typhus experiments at Buchenwald and Natzweiler concentration camps.

1941: Dr. William c. Black inoculated a twelve month old baby with herpes. He was criticized by Francis Payton Rous, editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, who called it "an abuse of power, an infringement of the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness which followed had implications for science." Dr. Rous rejected outright the fact that the child had been "offered as a volunteer."

1942 - 1945: Unit 731 (Japan). Ishii begins "field tests" of germ warfare and vivisection experiments on thousands of Chinese soldiers and civilians. Chinese people who rebelled against the Japanese occupation were arrested and sent to Pingfan where they became human guinea pigs; there is evidence that some Russian prisoners were also victims of medical atrocities. "I cut him open from the chest to the stomach and he screamed terribly and his face was all twisted in agony. He made this unimaginable sound, he was screaming so horribly. But then finally he stopped. This was all in a day's work for the surgeons, but it really left an impression on me because it was my first time." - NYT

These prisoners were called 'maruta' (literally 'logs') by the Japanese. After succumbing to induced diseases - including bubonic plague, cholera, anthrax - the prisoners were usually dissected while still alive, their bodies then cremated within the compound. Tens of thousands died. The atrocities were committed by some of Japan's most distinguished doctors recruited by Dr. Ishii.

1942: High altitude or low pressure experiments at Dachau concentration camp.

1942: Harvard biochemist Edward Cohn injects sixty-four Massachusetts prisoners with beef blood in U.S. Navy-sponsored experiment.

1942: Japanese sprayed cholera, typhoid, plague, and dysentery pathogens in the Jinhua area of Zhejian province (China). A large number of Japanese soldiers also fell victim to the sprayed diseases.

1942-1943: Bone regeneration and transplantation experiments on female prisoners at Ravensbrueck concentration camp.

1942-1943: Freezing experiments at Dachau concentration camp.

1943 Refrigeration experiment conducted on sixteen mentally disabled patients who were placed in refrigerated cabinets at 30 degree Farenheit, for 120 hours, at University of Cincinnati Hospital., "to study the effect of frigid temperature on mental disorders."

1942-1943: Coagulation experiments on Catholic priests at Dachau concentration camp.

1942-1944: U.S. Chemical Warfare Service conducts mustard gas experiments on thousands of servicemen.

1942-1945: Malaria experiments at Dachau concentration camp on more than twelve hundred prisoners.

1943: Epidemic jaundice experiments at Natzweiler concentration camp.

1943-1944: Phosphorus burn experiments at Buchenwald concentration camp.

1944: Manhattan Project injection of 4.7 micrograms of plutonium into soldiers at Oak Ridge, TN.

1944: Seawater experiment on sixty Gypsies who were given only saltwater to drink at Dachau concentration camp.

1944-1946: University of Chicago Medical School professor Dr. Alf Alving conducts malaria experiments on more than 400 Illinois prisoners.

1945: Manhattan Project injection of plutonium into three patients at Billings Hospital at University of Chicago.

1945: Malaria experiment on 800 prisoners in Atlanta.

1946: Opening of Nuremberg Doctors Trial by U.S. Military Tribunal.

1945: Japanese troops blow up the headquarters of Unit 731 in final days of Pacific war. Ishii orders 150 remaining ''logs'' (i.e., human beings) killed to cover up their experimentation. Gen. Douglas MacArthur is named commander of the Allied powers in Japan.

1946: U.S. secret deal with Ishii and Unit 731 leaders cover up of germ warfare data based on human experimentation in exchange for immunity from war-crimes prosecution.

1946-1953: Atomic Energy Commission sponsored study conducted at the Fernald school in Massachusetts. Residents were fed Quaker Oats breakfast cereal containing radioactive tracers.

1946: Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word "experiments" to "investigations" or "observations" whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation's veteran's hospitals.

1947: Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.

1947: The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge.

1947: Judgment at Nuremberg Doctors Trial sets forth "Permissible Medical Experiments" i.e., the Nuremberg Code, which begins: "The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential."

1949: Intentional release of radiodine 131 and xenon 133 over Hanford Washington in Atomic Energy Commission field study called "Green Run."

1949: Soviet Union's war crimes trial of Dr. Ishii's associates (Japan).

1949-1953: Atomic Energy Commission studies of mentally disabled school children fed radioactive isotopes at Fernald and Wrentham schools.

1940s-1950s: "psychic driving" and "mental departterning" experiments conducted by Dr. Ewen Cameron, depriving patients of sleep, using massive ECT combined with psychoactive drugs such as, LSD. After his "treatments" patients were unable to function. In the 1950's Dr.Cameron's experiments were sponsored by the CIA.

1950: Dr. Joseph Stokes of the University of Pennsylvania infects 200 women prisoners with viral hepatitis.

1950: U.S. Army secretly used a Navy ship outside the Golden Gate to spray supposedly harmless bacteria over San Francisco and its outskirts. Eleven people were sickened by the germs, and one of them died.

1951-1960: University of Pennsylvania under contract with U.S. Army conducts psychopharmacological experiments on hundreds of Pennsylvania prisoners.

1952-1974: University of Pennsylvania dermatologist Dr. Albert Kligman conducts skin product experiments by the hundreds at Holmesburg Prison; "All I saw before me," he has said about his first visit to the prison, "were acres of skin."

1952: Henry Blauer injected with a fatal dose of mescaline at New York State Psychiatric Institute of Columbia University. U.S. Department of Defense, the sponsor, conspired to conceal evidence for 23 years.

1953 Newborn Daniel Burton rendered blind at Brooklyn Doctor's Hospital due to high oxygen study on RLF.

1953-1957: Oak Ridge (TN)-sponsored injection of uranium into eleven patients at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

1953-1960: CIA brainwashing experiments with LSD at eighty institutions on hundreds of subjects in a project code named "MK-ULTRA."

1953-1970: U.S. Army experiments with LSD on soldiers at Fort Detrick, Md.

1954-1974: U.S. Army study of 2,300 Seventh-Day Adventist soldiers in 157 experiments code named "Operation Whitecoat."

1950s - 1972: Mentally disabled children at Willowbrook School (NY) were deliberately infected with hepatitis in an attempt to find a vaccine. Participation in the study was a condition for admission to institution.

1956: Dr. Albert Sabin tests experimental polio vaccine on 133 prisoners in Ohio.

1958-1962: Spread of radioactive materials over Inupiat land in Point Hope, Alaska in Atomic Energy Commission field study code named "Project Chariot."

1962: Thalidomide withdrawn from the market after thousands of birth deformities blamed in part on misleading results of animal studies; the FDA thereafter requires three phases of human clinical trials before a drug can be approved for the market.

1962 to 1966, a total of 33 pharmaceutical companies tested 153 experimental drugs at Holmesburg prison (PA) alone.

1962-1980 Pharmaceutical companies conduct phase I safety testing of drugs almost exclusively on prisoners for small cash payments.

1962: Injection of live cancer cells into 22 elderly patients at Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in Brooklyn. Administration covered up, NYS licensing board placed the principal investigator on probation for one year. Two years later, American Cancer Society elected him Vice President.

1962: Stanley Milgram conducts obedience research at Yale University.

1963: NIH supported researcher transplants chimpanzee kidney into human in failed experiment.

1963-1973: Dr. Carl Heller, a leading endocrinologist, conducts testicular irradiation experiments on prisoners in Oregon and Washington giving them $5 a month and $100 when they receive a vasectomy at the end of the trial.

1964: World Medical Association adopts Helsinki Declaration, asserting "The interests of science and society should never take precedence over the well being of the subject."

 1965-1966: University of Pennsylvania under contract with Dow Chemical conducts dioxin experiments on prisoners at Holmesburg.

 1966: Henry Beecher's article "Ethics and Clinical Research" in New England Journal of Medicine.

 1966: U.S. Army introduces bacillus globigii into New York subway tunnels in field study.

 1966: NIH Office for Protection of Research Subjects ("OPRR") created and issues Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects calling for establishment of independent review bodies later known as Institutional Review Boards.

1967: British physician M.H. Pappworth publishes "Human Guinea Pigs," advising "No doctor has the right to choose martyrs for science or for the general good."

1969: Judge Sam Steinfield's eloquent dissent in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145, the first judicial suggestion that the Nuremberg Code should influence American jurisprudence.

1969. Milledgeville Georgia, investigational drugs tested on mentally disabled children. No institutional approval.

1969: San Antonio Contraceptive Study conducted on 70 poor Mexican-American women. Half received oral contraceptives the other placebo. No informed consent.

1973 Ad Hoc Advisory Panel issues Final Report of Tuskegee Syphilis Study, concluding "Society can no longer afford to leave the balancing of individual rights against scientific progress to the scientific community."

1974: National Research Act establishes National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects and requires Public Health Service to promulgate regulations for the protection of human subjects.  [[The NRA also mandated that then-Secretary of DHHS Casper Weinburger appoint a committee to determine the 'ethical principles the US government should use in dealing with the use of human subjects in research.  Thus the National Commission was established in 1975, consisting of 11 appointed members, only one (Art Caplan) with a Ph.D. in philosophy (ethics is a subfield of philosophy). (Caplan is now on the Board of Trustees of the transhumanist Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (IEET)). In 1978/9 the National Commission submitted its Belmont Report -- the formal 'birth of bioethics' -- denoting three ethical principles:  respect for persons (which was rapidly replaced by autonomy), justice and beneficence (all oddly defined).  The NRA also mandated that the Belmont Report be incorporated on the first page of the revised OPRR federal regulations (now OHRP), done in 1981.  In those OPRR federal regulations, the 'human embryo' is nowhere defined as a 'subject of research' or otherwise -- thus legally does not exist.  Two false scientific definitions are incorporated into those OPRR regulations:  both 'pregnancy and fetus' are mis-defined as 'beginning at implantation'.  Real natural normal pregnancy begins at fertilization in the woman's fallopian tube (not in her uterus), and the 'fetal period' doesn't really begin until the beginning of 9 weeks post-fertilization. Thus theoretically,  according to these federal regulations (still operative as the OHRP regulations), abortions, the use of abortifacients, human embryo flushing, research on all human embryos in vitro in IVF/ART facilities can be 'legally' performed through 8 weeks post-fertilization. The USCCB official who inserted these two false scientific definitions was Richard Doerflinger. Of course, these federal regulations would also allow for all the genetic engineering (including synthetic biology and nanotechnology) of human embryos -- in vivo or in vitro -- so popular today.  -- DNI]]

1975: The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) raised NIH's 1966 Policies for the Protection of Human subjects to regulatory status. Title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations, known as "The Common Rule," requires the appointment and utilization of institutional review boards (IRBs).

1976: National Urban League holds National Conference on Human Experimentation, announcing "We don't want to kill science but we don't want science to kill, mangle and abuse us."

1978: Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.

1979: National Commission issues Belmont Report setting forth three basic ethical principles: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.

1980: The FDA promulgates 21 CFR 50.44 prohibiting use of prisoners as subjects in clinical trials shifting phase I testing by pharmaceutical companies to non-prison population.

1981: Leonard Whitlock suffers permanent brain damage after deep diving experiment at Duke University.

1986: Congressional subcommittee holds one-day hearing in Washington, called by Rep. Pat Williams of Montana, aimed at determining whether U.S. prisoners of war in Manchuria were victims of germ-warfare experimentation. Hearing is inconclusive.

1981-1996: Protocol 126 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle.

1987: Supreme Court decision in United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669, holding soldier given LSD without his consent could not sue U.S. Army for damages.

1987:" L-dopa challenge and relapse" experiment conducted on 28 U.S. veterans who were subjected to psychotic relapse for study purposes at the Bronx VA.

1990: The FDA grants Department of Defense waiver of Nuremberg Code for use of unapproved drugs and vaccines in Desert Shield.

1991: World Health Organization announces CIOMS Guidelines which set forth four ethical principles: respect for persons, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice.

1991: Tony LaMadrid commits suicide after participating in study on relapse of schizophrenics withdrawn from medication at UCLA.

1993: Kathryn Hamilton dies 44 days after participating in breast cancer experiment at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle.

1994. The Albuquerque Tribune publicizes 1940s experiments involving plutonium injection of human research subjects and secret radiation experiments. Indigent patients and mentally retarded children were deceived about the nature of their treatment.

1994. President Clinton appoints the Advisory Commission on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) The ACHRE Report http://tis.eh.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/index.html

1995. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published Human Radiation Experiments, listing 150 plus an additional 275 radiation experiments conducted by DOE and the Atomic Energy Commission, during the 1940s - 1970s. http://tis.eh.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/experiments/0491doca.html#0491_List

1995: 19-year-old University of Rochester student Nicole Wan dies after being paid $150 to participate in MIT-sponsored experiment to test airborne pollutant chemicals.

1995. President Clinton appoints the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.

1995: NYS Supreme Court rules (TD v NYS Office of Mental Health) against the state's policy of conducting nontherapeutic experiments on mentally incapacitated persons - including children - without informed consent. Justice Edward Greenfield ruled that parents have no authority to volunteer their children: "Parents may be free to make martyrs of themselves, but it does not follow that they may make martyrs of their children."

1995: Thirty-four healthy, previously non-aggressive New York City minority children, boys aged 6 to 11 years old, were exposed to fenfluramine in a nontherapeutic experiment at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. The children were exposed to this neurotoxic drug to record their neurochemical response in an effort to prove a speculative theory linking aggression to a biological marker.

1996. Cleveland Plain Dealer investigative report series, 'Drug Trials: Do People Know the Truth About Experiments,' December 15 to 18, 1996. The Plain-Dealer found: of the "4,154 FDA inspections of researchers testing new drugs on people [since 1977] . . . more than half the researchers were cited by FDA inspectors for failing to clearly disclose the experimental nature of their work."

1996: Yale University researchers publish findings of experiment that subjected 18 stable schizophrenia patients to psychotic relapse in an amphetamine provocation experiment at West Haven VA.

1997. President Clinton issues a formal apology to the subjects of the Tuskegee syphilis experiments. NBAC continues investigation into genetics, consent, privacy, and research on persons with mental disorders.

1997. Researchers at the University of Cincinnati publish findings of experiment attempting to create a "psychosis model" on human beings at the Cincinnati VA. Sixteen patients, experiencing a first episode schizophrenia, were subjected to repeated provocation with amphetamine. The stated purpose was to produce "behavioral sensitization. This process serves as a model for the development of psychosis, but has been little studied in humans. Symptoms, such as severity of psychosis and eye-blink rates, were measured hourly for 5 hours."

1997. U.S. government sponsored placebo-controlled experiment withholds treatment from HIV infected, pregnant African women. NY Times, Sept. 18.

1997. Victims of unethical research at major U.S. medical centers - including the NIMH - testify before the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Sept. 18.

1997. FDA Modernization Act gives pharmaceutical companies a huge financial incentive - a 6 month patent exclusivity extension - if they conduct drug tests on children. The incentive can yield $900 million.

1998. National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) Report. Research Involving Subjects with Mental Disorders That May Affect Decisionmaking Capacity. November 12,

1998 http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/capacity/TOC.htm

1998: The Japanese government has never formally apologized for Unit 731's activities, and did not even admit to its existence until August 1998, when the Supreme Court ruled that the existence of the unit was accepted in academic circles.

1998. Complaint filed with OPRR about experiments that exposed non-violent children in New York City to fenfluramine to find a predisposition to violence.

1998: Boston Globe (four part) series, "Doing Harm: Research on the Mentally Ill" shed light on the mistreatment and exploitation of schizophrenia patients who have been subjected to relapse producing procedures in unethical experiments.

1999: Nine month-old Gage Stevens dies at Children's Hospital in Pittsburgh during participation in Propulsid clinical trial for infant acid reflux.

1999: 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger dies after being injected with 37 trillion particles of adenovirus in gene therapy experiment at University of Pennsylvania.

1999: Director of National Institute of Mental Health suspends 29 clinical trials that failed to meet either ethical or scientific standards.

2000: University of Oklahoma melanoma trial halted for failure to follow government regulations and protocol.

2000: OPRR becomes Office of Human Research Protection ("OHRP") and made part of the Department of Health and Human Services.

2000: President Clinton implements the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Act of 2000, which authorized compensation for thousands of Department of Energy workers who sacrificed their health in building the nation's nuclear defenses.

2000: The Washington Post (6 part) series, "Body Hunters" exposes unethical exploitation in experiments conducted by U.S. investigators in underdeveloped countries. Part 4 dealt with U.S. government funded, genetic experiments conducted by Harvard University in rural China.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A26797-2000Dec19.html

2001: A biotech company in Pennsylvania asks the FDA for permission to conduct placebo trials on infants in Latin America born with serious lung disease though such tests would be illegal in U.S.

2001: Ellen Roche, a healthy 27-year old volunteer, dies in challenge study at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

2001: April 4, Elaine Holden-Able, a healthy retired nurse, consumed a glass of orange juice that had been mixed with a dietary supplement for the sake of medical research. This Case Western University Alzheimer's experiment, financed by the tobacco industry, wound up killing her in what was called a ''tragic human error.'' Federal Office of Human Research Protections did not interview hospital staff, mostly accepted hospital's internal report, imposed no penalty, and closed the case and did not mention the death in its letter of determination. http://ohrp.osophs.dhhs.gov/detrm_letrs/nov01f.pdf

2001: Maryland Court of Appeals renders a landmark decision affirming "best interest of the individual child" as a standard for medical research involving children. The Court unequivocally prohibited nontherapeutic experimentation on children. (Higgins and Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute).The case involved exposure of babies and small children to lead poisoning in EPA funded experiment. (http://www.courts.state.md.us/opinions/coa/2001/128a00.pdf)

 

 


Note:  A very sobering chronology of unethical human research -- at least such that was reported -- well worth contemplating -- especially now that even our federal agencies are pushing to do away with the 'informed consent' requirement as the only way to get 'data';  see, e.g.: 

**Medical Research Stakeholders Seek to Overturn Informed Consent Protections;  Part 3 of 4, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/928/9/

**Medical Research Stakeholders Seek to Overturn Informed Consent Protections;  Part 2 of 4, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/927/81/

**Another View Academics for Informed Consent, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/926/99/

**Medical Research Stakeholders Seek to Overturn Informed Consent Protection;  Part 1 of 4, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/925/81/

**OHRP Caves Under SUPPORT Pressure Re: oxygen experiment tiny premature babies, at:  http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/924/81/

Note especially the unethical research pre-World War II through 2001 -- all performed supposedly for 'beneficent, altruistic or 'national security' reasons, mostly by government agencies, esteemed academic medical facilities, prominent investigators, pharmaceutical companies -- mostly without 'informed consent' or the victims' knowledge, on vulnerable children, prisoners, the elderly, mentally ill and retarded, political and ethnic opponents, Third World populace, etc.  Given the current explosion of especially genetic and genetic engineering research -- and the concomitant explosion of scientific fraud and unethical experiments -- all need to be aware of these very disturbing precedents.  'Data' at any cost.  'Bioethics' would approve most of this as being 'for the greater good'.  However, there are other 'ethics' insisting that 'the ends never justify the means'.  See especially 1974, above.  Please read carefully, all the way through to the end.  I bet you won't be able to.  Note:  'VA' used above usually refers to 'Veterans Administration'.  . -- DNI]



Are Atheists Really Fools?

by Roderick C. Meredith


I have before me two newspaper articles with which I strongly disagree. Although I generally love the Wall Street Journal and find its articles and editorials very helpful and stimulating, the articles I am referring to are written in my opinion-- by a couple of "educated fools" --well-known scientist Richard Dawkins and religion writer Karen Armstrong. In an article titled "Man vs. God" (WSJ, September 12, 2009), they "debated" evolution, science and the role of religion. Dawkins came down hard against the idea of a real God and against religion in general. He asserted, "Evolution is the universe's greatest work. Evolution is the creator of life, and life is arguably the most surprising and most beautiful production that the laws of physics have ever generated."

Dawkins went on making fun of God and describing the glories of evolution. But is his kind of reasoning based on fact? Is his supposed "scientific approach" all neat and tidy?

No!


For in his remarks praising "Darwinian life" and denigrating God, Dawkins cheerfully said, "What is so special about life? It never violates the laws of physics. Nothing does (if anything did, physicists would just have to formulate new laws ' --it's happened often enough in the history of science). But although life never violates the laws of physics, it pushes them into unexpected avenues that stagger the imagination."

Do you see Dawkin's problem? He starts out with an already existing universe. This universe has basic "laws" which he admits are never broken! Later, he goes on to admit, once again, "Never once are the laws of physics violated, yet life emerges into uncharted territory."

Think
about this preposterous reasoning!

This supposed "great" scientist admits that "never once are the laws of physics violated." Yet he somehow fails to grasp that something or someone had to create these laws of physics and the entire universe that is filled with inviolate laws. It is obvious to most truly sincere and thinking persons that the interrelated and overlapping laws of physics, chemistry, and other areas of science must have been created by a Higher Power--an awesome Being--with a mind far above the human mind. He set in motion these laws and created the beauty, the delicacy and the constancy of this universe to sustain the laws that govern our lives.

As letter-writer Joseph Furman replied a week later in response to the article: "I only had two semesters of college physics, so I must have missed the part where Mr. Dawkins' much vaunted laws of physics began permitting man to love, laugh and cry" (WSJ, September 19, 2009).

Who indeed
brought about the creative mind which man alone possesses--and the ability to back off and laugh at himself, to love, and to sometimes give with no thought of a return, and to have a deep spiritual longing with recognition that there must be a higher power?

The so-called "scientists" who try to bypass the basic fact of an entire universe filled with consistent laws and a host of creatures and creations that interact with each other in a way that beautifully "works"--"these people are indeed lacking in understanding and wisdom. As the Psalmist wrote, "The fool has said in his heart, "There is no God" (Psalm 14:1).

For her part, religion writer Karen Armstrong wandered around with "touchy feely" ideas that frankly prove nothing. She stated, "The best theology is a spiritual exercise, akin to poetry. Religion is not an exact science but a kind of art form that, like music or painting, introduces us to a mode of knowledge that is different from the purely rational and which cannot easily be put into words."

Indeed, she had a hard time rationally putting her ideas into words! It is sad that, in the name of "religion," this kind of response was chosen to supposedly rebut the atheist Richard Dawkins. For, her response showed no understanding of true religion--nor of a genuine approach to the God of the Bible.

Part of the problem facing these confused individuals is revealed in Aldous Huxley's statement in his well-known book, Ends and Means. This famous thinker and philosopher admits, "Most ignorance is invincible ignorance. We don't know because we don't want to know. It is our will that decides how and upon what subjects we shall use our intelligence. Those who detect no meaning in the world generally do so because, for one reason or another, it suits their books that the world should be meaningless" (p. 312).

Indeed, it is not "fashionable" to believe in a real God. For people like to deny the truth of revealed prophecy in His inspired word, the Bible. But the truth remains! If you have not already done so, write for your free subscription to our Tomorrow's World Bible Study Course. There, you will learn for yourself the truth about fulfilled prophecy. You will see, for example, how God inspired Isaiah to write about the activities of King Cyrus of Persia 200 years in advance--"events confirmed by secular history and your Bible! Yes, my friends, this is a real God! Is He real to you?

People soon will have to believe in God--for He is right now beginning to intervene powerfully in world affairs in very specific ways which we at Tomorrow's World have been telling you about for years! Fulfilled prophecy is very difficult for the skeptic to refute. For it not only has happened--as I indicated--"but you can now see it continuing to happen all around you, if you truly understand prophecy and read your daily newspaper or watch a television channel that actually gives world news.

This very Work--which produces the Tomorrow's World television program and Tomorrow's World magazine--is a continuation of the Work led by Herbert W. Armstrong--a well-known servant of Christ who died in 1986 at age 93. In August 1950, he wrote in The Plain Truth magazine, "No all-out full-scale war is prophesied between Russia and the United States. The famous prophecy of Ezek. 38 and 39 foretells a Russian invasion of Palestine, much later, not against the North American continent" (p. 2).

Remember, dear reader, that back then the vast majority of Bible "prophecy students" were proclaiming that Ezekiel 38 foretold a Russian attack on the North American continent! Often, as we have noted repeatedly, Mr. Armstrong stood alone in proclaiming the Truth of what actually was and is happening in world affairs.

Writing in The Good News in April 1952, Mr. Armstrong proclaimed (at a time virtually no one expected this): "Russia may give East Germany back to the Germans and will be forced to relinquish her control over Hungary, Czechoslovakia and parts of Austria to complete the ten nation union. Europe will have a free hand to destroy America and Britain as prophesied" (p. 16).

How could Mr. Armstrong possibly have known 37 years in advance that Russia was not to become America's greatest challenge--and was not to attack us directly? How could he have known that Russia would, in fact, give East Germany back to the Germans and be forced to relinquish her control over Germany, Czechoslovakia and parts of Austria?

Because, my friends, there is a real God who inspired this information in His Holy Bible! That same God is speaking to your mind now through this Work! We have told you that unless America and the British-descended peoples come to a genuine national repentance such as has never been seen before, they will continue their downward spiral! Almost everything will seem to go wrong. For the Eternal God told our forefathers that if we do not obey His commandments and statutes, He would bring upon us "terror" and then "wasting disease and fever" (Leviticus 26:14-17). We have witnessed--and will continue to witness--all kinds of terror, including terrorist attacks on our cities, our seaports, our airports, our railway stations and our other forms of transport. And we will soon be entering a time of "wasting disease" such as we have never experienced before.

God tells us that if we will not repent, He "will break the pride of your power" (Leviticus 26:19).

To understand these facts, please write for our free booklets, The Real God: Proofs and Promises and Prophecy Fulfilled: God's Hand in World Affairs. You need this vital information! You need to have the intellectual and spiritual honesty to prove to yourself that most of the "educated fools" around you who deny God's existence are the ones who are really "out of touch"!

And you need--with all your heart--to get "in touch" with the real God who gives you life and breath, who is now intervening in human affairs before setting up His very real Kingdom or World Government to finally bring peace to a very confused world. May God help you to be willing to face genuine facts. And may He help you to act on the precious Truth that He alone can provide!

 


Dr. Roderick C. Meredith is editor in chief of Tomorrow's World magazine. His article is reprinted from the Nov. - Dec. 2009 issue, "The Truth About 2012: Hollywood vs. Humanity". Republished here by special permission from the Living Church of God.


Fibonacci's Golden Mean…Evidence of Design or Evolution?

by Allen Williams


We have often heard from evolutionists that those holding the view that life is a product of Intelligent Design are ‘Creobots’ or ‘ID’iots, as if there was nothing more than one’s emotions or a less evolved intellect in order to consider the possibility of design rather than natural selection.

Evolutionist, Richard Dawkins claims, that the ‘God delusion’ is behind the notion of design and purpose to mankind and its surroundings. Is this true? The field of mathematics is a highly structured and orderly application of human reason and logic, which did not evolve but was developed through incisive thought and mathematical tests.

The principles of mathematics developed through observation and the desire to quantify what was observed. It’s definitions, identities, and axioms define an absolute truth, which is unerring and undeviating, and is the basis that establishes the theorems of application. The foundation of Mathematics rests on logic and is a "deductive study of numbers, geometry and various abstract constructs". - Columbia Encyclopedia, 1991. So, how is the mental reasoning that allows truth to be discovered in the world of numbers, suddenly flawed when it comes to discovering the truth of an Intelligent Designer?

One evolutionist claims that "Real life is not binary, it uses real numbers (I’m not saying that binary numbers aren’t real, but that real life can use rational and irrational numbers). At the core, proofs in biology are not different from proofs in mathematics. "

Really? Well, then if real life can use irrational numbers to represent physical phenomena then it can equally utilize binary numbers, i.e. ‘0, 1’ to describe the state of certain life conditions. After all, what is life or death but a binary function? You’re either alive or dead, there isn’t any in-between. Now according to this evolutionist’s statement, if numbers in life forms can be shown to be real and part of a family, then that would constitute evidence for the existence of an Intelligent Designer as it would for the existence and validity of a mathematical theorem.

In Fermat’s Last Theorem, where equations of the form xn +yn = zn, have been shown to be irreducible and modular, therefore part of a family of elliptic curves. So, is there any biological evidence of some common mathematical relationship in living plants and animals? If not, then this would tend to support evolution’s notion of randomness in creating life but if so, then design is inferred.

An Italian mathematician by the name of Leonardo Fibonacci or more properly, Leonardo da Pisa brought the modern decimal numbering system to Europe in 1200 AD. His travels as a merchant throughout Algeria, Syria, Greece, etc., brought him into contact with the Arabian number or 10 based number system. He is best known for a simple mathematical series introduced in his publication, Liber Abaci, named as Fibonacci numbers in his honor. The series begins with zero and each successive number is the sum of the last two, i.e. 0 + 1 = 1 and 1 + 1 = 2, etc. 0, 1, 1, 2, 3 , 5 , 8, 13, 21, 34, 55 and so on defines the series.

A unique attribute of the series is that dividing a number by the preceding smaller one yields a ratio called the ‘golden mean’ or ‘divine number’, as it is called. It’s the ratio of the current number in the Fibonacci series, i.e. x(n+1) divided by the previous number x(n), i.e. 55/34 = 1.6176. This number series can be visualized as a group of boxes or rectangles as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 – Fibonacci Blocks

Now, consider the line segment, 'ac'


               a                                                b                                                         c


If we postulate that there exists an optimum ratio, i.e. height to width, which may be represented by the line segment above. We can pick an arbitrary point along the line to represent this optimum, called 'b', then: ab/bc = bc/ac

An optimum ratio is an ideal length relationship between line segments. Such a relationship might be expected to be more than simply an interesting intellectual exercise. The line segment ratio in our example is the length of bc to ab. Now if we set ab = 1 and let x represent the segment bc, we have:

1/x = x/(1+x)

(1 + x) = x2. This can be put into standard quadratic form as:

x2 – x –1 = 0 with a root of 1 + Sqrt(5)/2 = 1.618, or the golden ratio. The equation may also be expressed in terns of its coefficients:

x2 - (b/a)x – 1 = 0 where a = 1 and b= x.

The term (b/a) approaches a finite limit for the series as the Fibonacci ratio approaches infinity:

LIM [(b/a)] -> µ = 1.618. This relationship is also found to exist in angle groups as well as lines.

This remarkable property is by no means restricted to the series developed by Leonardo Fibonacci but occurs in limitless mathematical sequences. For example take the polar coordinate axes, 0, Pi/6, Pi/4, Pi/3, Pi/2, 2Pi/3, 3Pi/4, 5Pi/6, Pi, 7Pi/6, 5Pi/4, and so on. A Fibonacci series can be created from the polar axes themselves by adding together the last two numbers to get the next one in the sequence, which are: 0.79, 0.79, 1.84, 2.63, 4.47, 7.10, 11.57, 18.67, 30.24, 48.91, 79.15, and so on. A plot of the sequence is shown in Figure 2. 

This length to width relationship produces what is referred to as the ‘golden rectangle.’ It occurs time and again throughout nature, in the human body, as well as the animal and plant world. Note its similarity to both the Fibonacci spiral and the seashell of Figures 5 & 6 respectively.

"Phideas, the Greek sculptor and many others in Greece and Egypt used this relationship in creating their works of art and architecture.

Furthermore the ratio and the golden spiral are ubiquitous throughout creation", so says Frederick A. Willson in "Ubiquity of the Divine" (Golden) Ratio and Fibonacci Numbers Throughout the Heavens and Earth." See also: http://plus.maths.org/issue3/fibonacci

Figure 3 shows the plot of progressive (b/a) calculations of the polar axes as determined from the polar series of Figure 2. Note that this series limit is the predicted 1.618, the same ratio as our line segment, 'a-c' above demonstrates.

"The Golden Mean or Phi occurs frequently in nature and it may be that humans are genetically programmed to recognize the ratio as being pleasing. Studies of top fashion models revealed that their faces have an abundance of the 1.618 ratio." – Frederick A. Willson in "Ubiquity of the Divine." See: Fibonacci Numbers in nature

Human DNA

Human DNA exhibits this same divine number or golden mean. The double helix structure of DNA shown in Figure 4, measures 34 angstroms long by 21 angstroms wide for each full cycle. So, 34/21 = 1.619. The length between major and minor grooves, the blue and yellow line), exhibits this same 1.618 ideal ratio.

Human DNA: http://goldennumber.net/dna.htm

Figure 4. – Human DNA
(Photo: Double Helix)

Francis Crick, the discoverer of the double helix structure of DNA has calculated the probability that such a complicated molecular string could have formed on its own as essentially zero. The biological code written into the human cell would fill 1,600 pages.

There is as much information in the cell as is contained in 600 encyclopedias. Cell mechanics are also extremely complex: "Life at the molecular level is composed of tiny machinesThere are more machines inside the human body than all the combined factories of the world… There are 2 trillion chemical processes that take place in the human cell." - Michael Behe, ‘Darwin's Black Box’.

Genetics has shown that mankind is all ONE blood (Acts 17:26) requiring no more than a 0.012% variation in DNA to account for all the outward physical characteristics, including skin color.

It seems a stretch to the logical mind that evolution not only produces life by random acts of chance but has also produced it in an optimal aspect ratio of length to width, i.e. 1.618: 1. In one case, natural selection's chance combinations purportedly create life through confusion, while on the other hand, we have evidence of Intelligent Design as noted in I Corinthians 14:33, which states that "For God is not the author of confusion.."

Intelligent Design’s ‘Anthropic Principle’ suggests that there are a series of optimum constants necessary to support life, one of which is the spiral galaxy. There are three basic galactic forms, elliptical, irregular and spiral. However, only spiral galaxies have a near round orbit capable of supporting life.

Figure 5 – Spiral Galaxy
(Photo: Ursa Major)

The golden mean in spiral galaxies: http://www.wisdomportal.com/Geometry/SpiralPage.html

Many plants exhibit the Fibonacci series in petals, leaves, sections and seeds: http://goldennumber.net/plants.htm Fibonacci numbers are also found in living organisms including the cochlea of the human ear: http://www.world-mysteries.com/sci_17.htm

Figure 6 - Fibonacci Spiral
(Photo: Nautilus Construct)

Using the blocks of Figure 1, we may construct an idealized spiral by drawing a series of lines through the diagonals of each of the Fibonacci squares and then connecting them with a series of smooth curves or chords as shown in Figure 5.

The resulting figure looks remarkably like the Nautilus seashell of Figure 7. 

Figure 7: Nautilus Shell (Photo: http://www.sacredarch.com/sacred_geo_exer_shell.htm )


Matter, Chance and Time are the trinity of evolution. And so, unique mathematical relationships conflict with material science’s assertion that there are no absolute truths. The fact that a unique aspect ratio is so pervasive through out nature is strong evidence of intentional design rather than chance combinations in matter as evolutionist’s have asserted.




Evolution's Better Arguments…but are they?

by Allen Williams


Evolutionists regularly invent new fantasy stories to account for the material existence of the universe. Often these stories are discontinuous threads looking at one segment of the universe while ignoring all others. Evolution's explanations seek to satisfy any immediate threats to the theory rather than to meet the overall system constraints which limit it.

The evolutionary mindset is entrenched, often fanatical in its denial of any possibility of Intelligent Design having created the universe despite the mental gymnastics that have to be performed to deny the obvious. The Anthropic principle states among other things that free bodies in space must conserve angular momentum, i.e. when a body breaks apart, the fragments spin in the same direction as the parent. Evolutionists disagree claiming:

"As for the angular momentum problem, that only deals with how the solar system formed. A lot has happened in the last few billion years. In the case of Earth, it was smashed by a proto-planet the size of Mars that gouged out enough material to make the moon. Something similar happened to Venus, except in Venus’s case it was a glancing blow near one of the poles that caused the planet to flip over, making it seem to turn the other way. It is actually still turning the same way, it is just the axis of rotation has flipped. Something similar happened to Uranus, which is now laying on its side (90 degree flip). And let me ask you, why would a creator decide to randomly flip some arbitrary planet over? What possible purpose could that serve?">

Be sure and remember angular momentum only deals with how the universe was formed the next time you inadvertently step in front of a bus. If the moon, with a mass one fourth that of the earth, were torn away in a planetary collision how are both objects relatively round given the vacuum of space? And only one heavenly body rotates and only one has an atmosphere after the collision?

How does something 'seem' to rotate in the opposite direction to the earth? It either does or doesn't. Amazingly, this ‘glancing blow’ collision that causes Venus to 'seem' to rotate in the opposite direction leaves no other indication of its existence, i.e no asteroid fragments or moon to orbit it. It simply disappears into the Sun’s gravity or careens off into deep space. And, this favored collision doesn’t involve conservation of angular momentum because the universe was already formed. How stupid is this!?

Perhaps an ordinary pocket watch holds the secret as to why a Creator might have flipped the rotation of a planet. Just as a watch’s gears turn in opposite directions to track time, so too might the universe be considered a giant clock propelled by gravity.

However, evolution's’ response as to why the earth and moon are round after the collision and earth’s atmosphere is intact is:

"That is because it melted Earth’s crust... I suppose you have never heard of gravity. It is something that causes objects to be attracted towards each other. It also causes objects that are large enough to form into spheres, or roughly spheres, since that shape minimizes the distance of any point from the center. Our atmosphere also has much less Nitrogen than the other planets. It seems like some huge catastrophe came along and stripped it all away... Of course water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen were trapped underground and escaped over time, but our atmosphere is still completely different than it should be compared to other planets, assuming there wasn’t some massive event that changed it."

Any gravitational force strong enough to ‘round off’ the jagged edges of a collision in the vacuum of free space would be strong enough to hold an atmosphere, yet only the earth has an atmosphere.

So the earth’s crust fused on impact with the ‘proto-sized’ planet right after the moon broke off but none of the life-giving atmosphere was torn away in the process. When one drops something, there is always more than one fragment, how fortuitous for evolution that either all the fragments ‘recombined’ to form the moon or only one piece broke off.

The evolutionist further notes that the atmosphere was all safely 'tucked' under the crust, a crust that fused all around the globe, not just at the point of impact. However, this scenario doesn’t resolve well with the evidence of large meteorites that have struck the earth in the past. They didn’t fuse the earth’s crust at the point of impact, they just created a big hole.

The 'fused crust' then allowed the trapped water and atmosphere to escape millions of years later when either the nitrogen selectively leaked away without any of the water or oxygen along with it. Or, the Nitrogen leaked away during some other future catastrophic event, which also didn’t result in the loss of water or oxygen which violates the known laws of diffusion.

And, of course, the tremendous hydrostatic pressure that would have developed under the earth’s fused crust in the entrapment of atmospheric gases and water not only didn’t split the earth apart but escaped slowly to form the air and sea. And, that collision neither changed earth’s orbit around the sun nor resulted in the heating or cooling of its molten core. And, don't miss the other equally improbable scenario, that molecules of gas 'leaked' out of the rocks over millions of years to slowly form an atmosphere after gravity had 're-rounded' the earth from the departure of the moon. Of course, the nitrogen escaped first because of its lower molecular weight as the earth wasn't fully round yet. {Excuse me while I laugh.}

Interestingly enough, evolutionists concede that green house gases were present in the atmosphere long before the appearance of man. How many years does it take to evolve from an amoeba to homo sapiens? Who was around to record the global warming?

"I should also point out that there are a great many chemical similarities between the Earth and the Moon."

But, the moon didn’t evolve an oxygen containing atmosphere millions of years later as earth did nor did other planets in this solar system. So, what other similarities matter?

Evolutionists regard logic as something true for only a finite portion of time rather than always, a necessary condition to allow the fitting of separate and otherwise incompatible event threads. So, in their world, the ‘null’ hypothesis has no real meaning, i.e. ‘A’ and ‘NOT ‘A’ , nor does the concept of falsification of any hypothesis: "

"Here’s a little experiment to try: Take three bowls of water. Add ice cubes to the first to make it nice and cold. Add some heat to the third to make it nice and warm. Let the second one remain at room temperature. Place your left hand in the first bowl and your right hand in the third, and leave them there for a bit. Say, a minute or so. Then put them both in the middle bowl. Voila! The middle bowl is both hot and cold! If hot is A, then the middle bowl is both A and NOT A!"

What kind of nonsense is this? Temperature is not measured by sensory perception; it’s measured through bodies in thermal equilibrium according to the Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Ask the Doctor to stick his finger in you rather than using his digital thermometer next time you’re sick. If ‘A’ is true, then ‘Not A’ is always false for the chosen case, not just for a finite period. This is the confusion that the 'no absolute' truth teaching brings to public education.

Next we have evolution's perversion of the 2nd and 3rd laws of thermodynamics:

"Or are you misusing the Second Law? That’s usually more typical. Creationists love to ignore the fact that if their "decay of everything" version of the Second Law was true, you couldn’t even grow wheatgrass in a cup, because wheatgrass has, like, information in it. Maybe God has to prop up even wheatgrass development in this whole physics-derived field of Okami evil spirit-like cursed decay."

Energy must be in a form that can be utilized by the recipient; otherwise we could all live on sunlight rather than organic nourishment. While plants do utilize the sun as an energy source, the gases they exchange increases entropy to the surroundings.

There's nothing stated in either the second or third law that says decay prevents growth of living organisms. The only requirement for growth is that the energy input be greater than the energy exhausted to the sink. Entropy is merely an indication of the energy decay experienced by that system, living or not. And, the fact that the sun imparts entropy to its surroundings doesn’t alter the fact that the earth is still decaying.

The best argument came from a response to the second half of the second law of thermodynamics or Nerst’s postulation, governing evolutionary processes, {update 5/2/12 - i.e. 2(b).

"It is the second law of thermodynamics that Creationists do not understand. The third simply states that the other two laws only apply at temperatures above absolute zero. The second law says that total entropy can only go down in a closed system. But the Earth is not a closed system, every tiny drop in entropy here is compensated for many times over by the constant, massive increase in entropy in the sun. You know, it being a massive nuclear fireball and all."

As a matter of fact, '2b' states that "..a system will move in the direction that increases the entropy of the system or the universe." This means that the net change in entropy, ‘Sin – S'out must be greater than or equal to zero. The term 'total' entropy as used by the evolutionist is a deception, inferring that 'Sin – S'out can be less than zero. How is a cooling body a net decease in entropy? And, is not the Sun decaying through its fusion reactions in radiating energy to space?

{update 2/12/09} The evolutionist's 'closed system' term is a misnomer. If entropy could only decrease in closed or ordered systems then how does snow melt? The answer is that the state condition depends on the net change in dS, or Sin – S'out. The evolutionist ignores the enthalpy, 'H' of the surroundings. Evolution requires 'spontaneity' for its abiogenesis changes to take place which can only occur through the generation of new entropy by the system, closed or open. It cannot utilize existing entropy from the environment, i.e. S>0 as it can with enthalpy, 'H' or 'dS' itself must be greater than zero. However, it can acquire necessary reaction energy from its surroundings and be spontaneous if 'H-TS' is an absolute minimum. Spontaneous atmospheric reactions like the open air oxidation (of carbon monoxide, CO to carbon dioxide and acid rain , i.e. 2NO + O2 -> 2NO2 occur because the 'H-TS' change produces a positive entropy, 'dS' as required by the 2nd law. Otherwise, neither would be an environmental problem.

The earth’s rotation has been shown to have slowed, loss in kinetic energy, over the last 6000 years and the atmosphere continues to radiate heat to free space according to the second law relationship, i.e. dq/T. Otherwise, everything would burn up from the accumulated energy input by the sun. Next, the evolutionist states:

"Look around next time it is snowing. Snow is a much lower entropy state for water to be in compared to the water vapor that it started at. Yet snow forms. The same goes for crystals, ice, water, and many other ordered systems that form spontaneously in nature. The same principles that allow these system to reduce their entropy also allows life to reduce its entropy."

The crystalline state of any substance in either a closed or open system doesn’t suspend the second law {2(b)} because  the net change in ‘S’ is simply zero not less than zero. If the net change in were found to be less than zero for a living organism or system then Nerst’s postulate would be invalid. There is no empirical or physical evidence that supports such a claim since the inception of the law. How can one reduce his entropy without bringing about death? Hypothermia certainly zeros out your entropy.

Evolution theory breaks under the sheer weight of its own convoluted arguments.