The Greatest Land Deal Ever?

by John H. Ogwyn


On a bright, balmy afternoon nearly 200 years ago, on December 20, 1803, the flag of the United States of America was first raised in the Place d’Armes (now Jackson Square) in New Orleans, as the U.S. officially took possession of the Louisiana Purchase.

In just a few years at the start of the 19th century, the U.S. and British Commonwealth nations rose to unprecedented prominence on the world scene. Why did the English-speaking peoples rise to such unprecedented power and greatness?

Jefferson at the Helm

In 1776, there had been no United States of America. That summer, Thomas Jefferson penned the Declaration of Independence, which first declared the existence of a sovereign American nation. A bloody war and successive years of struggle were to follow, and a new nation was created. In March 1801, when Jefferson took the oath of office as the third President of the fledgling U.S., much had changed in just 25 years. Thirteen British colonies hugging the Atlantic seacoast had quickly become a westward-looking nation expanding toward the Mississippi River.

In 1801, the total population of the U.S. was still under six million, most of whom lived less than 100 miles from the Atlantic coast. But several new states—Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee—had been added to the original 13, and increasing numbers of settlers were pouring into the future states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. Many farmers were finding that it only made sense to ship their produce down the Ohio River to the Mississippi, then south to the port of New Orleans. A lack of roads made it impractical for farmers to haul their cash crops east to the Atlantic seaboard.

The French had founded New Orleans in 1718, then ceded it to the Spanish in 1763 as part of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War (also called the "French and Indian War" in America). Because of its position at the mouth of the Mississippi, New Orleans was of major economic importance to the western settlers in the young U.S. As more settlers moved westward, this port could only grow in importance.

So the Jefferson administration was understandably concerned when it learned that France’s new ruler, Napoleon, was pressuring Spain to return the Louisiana Territory to French control. It was one thing for a weak Spanish government to control the port of New Orleans, but it was quite another for it to be controlled by an ambitious and powerful ruler such as Napoleon. The Mississippi River was the economic lifeline for America’s western settlers, and whoever controlled New Orleans controlled commerce on the Mississippi.

Knowing that the very future of his country was at stake, President Jefferson dispatched to France two diplomats—Robert Livingston and later James Monroe—to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans. At first, Napoleon’s government showed no interest. Napoleon had dreams of reestablishing a vast French colonial empire in the "New World." But the Creator of the universe had other plans.

Napoleon’s dreams of an American empire were crushed when 50,000 French troops, under the command of his brother-in-law General Charles LeClerc, died while trying to subdue a rebellion against French colonial rule on the Caribbean island of Santo Domingo. This calamity, and the growing prospect of war against the British, prompted Napoleon to offer the American envoys not just the purchase of New Orleans, but rather the entire Louisiana Territory.

For $15 million—less than a nickel an acre—the U.S. received what turned out to be a vast inland empire of 830,000 square miles, including some of the richest farmland on the face of the earth! Included were all or part of what would become 13 states: Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota. "‘Today,’ said Livingston, after he had attached his signature, ‘the United States take their place among the powers of the first rank’" (William O. Scroggs, The Story of Louisiana, p. 161).

At the time of the purchase, the boundaries were so poorly defined that neither France nor the U.S. knew exactly what was being sold. President Jefferson was eager to learn all about the new territory—the Indian nations living there, its plant and animal life, its rivers and the prospect of a route across the northern part of the new territory that could take Americans all the way to the Pacific Ocean. An official expedition into the new territory was outfitted and dispatched, led by U.S. Army officers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Leaving from St. Louis, Missouri in the summer of 1804, they returned a couple of years later with maps and data that made clear that America had gained far more than had previously been realized.

This vast expanse of territory ensured the continuing expansion of widespread land ownership among the American people. Laying a foundation for a wide-based American prosperity, millions of future settlers were able to own their own land, rather than live as tenants on the estate of some great landlord. Under President James Madison, Jefferson’s successor, the U.S. government undertook the ambitious project of surveying this vast tract of land. The survey began in a swamp near the present-day town of Brinkley, Arkansas, where a stake was driven in the ground and teams began to chart an east-west line that became the baseline for all property descriptions within the territory of the Louisiana Purchase. This line continued west along what is now Baseline Road in Little Rock, and ultimately extended across the entire state of Oklahoma.

"The National Historic Landmark, deep in the swamp of the Louisiana Purchase State Park in Brinkley, marks the initial survey point. From this point, surveyors began their work of chains and compasses. Every legal description of the land contained in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 depended on these measurements taken from this point" (Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, May 4, 2003).

Fulfillment of an Ancient Promise

The Louisiana Purchase territory includes some of the most valuable agricultural land on the planet. It encompasses the very heartland of the North American continent. Control of this valuable territory set the stage for what Americans in the coming decades began to call "Manifest Destiny."

Was this rapid expansion just a matter of time and chance, or was it really the nation’s pre-ordained destiny? If it was a matter of destiny, then why? Why were the English-speaking peoples destined to control the American heartland, rather than the nations that had tried and failed before?

To understand the answer to that question, we must look to the far distant past. The Creator of the universe told a man named Abram, living on the lower Euphrates River in a city called Ur of the Chaldees, to leave his family and homeland to go to a land that he would afterward be given. At age 75, Abram left Mesopotamia behind, and began his journey to the land of Canaan.

Initially, God simply told Abram that he would become "a great nation" and that all the families of the earth would be blessed through him (Genesis 12:2–3). Twenty-four years later, when Abram was 99 years old, God appeared to him and entered into a solemn covenant. God changed Abram’s name to Abraham, and expanded His promise to include Abraham’s becoming the "father of many nations" (Genesis 17:4). Many years later, the Almighty appeared to Abraham’s grandson Jacob, and further expanded the promise by declaring that Jacob’s descendants would spread abroad in every direction from the promised land in the Middle East (Genesis 28:13–14). Still later, after another encounter with God, Jacob’s name was changed to Israel (Genesis 32:28), and his descendants were thenceforth known as Israelites.

Genesis 48 describes a ceremony that took place near the end of Israel’s long life. Very few have ever understood the real significance of what occurred that day in ancient Egypt. Israel’s sons had sold their younger brother Joseph into slavery many years earlier. Joseph, however, had prospered, rising to become second-in-command to Pharaoh in Egypt. The family was reunited during a time of famine, when Israel and his family had come to Egypt to live in the Nile delta region (the "Land of Goshen"). Learning that his elderly father was ill, Joseph came to visit, bringing his sons Ephraim and Manasseh.

Sitting up in bed to receive his son and grandsons, elderly Israel called Ephraim and Manasseh near to bless them. Knowing that his father was nearly blind, Joseph had purposely placed the boys so that his father’s right hand would be on the older son, Manasseh, and his left hand would be on the younger, Ephraim. When the time came, Israel crossed his arms, laying his right hand on Ephraim and his left hand on Manasseh. Initially, Joseph was disturbed, for he thought his father had become confused. Israel corrected him, explaining that he was doing this on purpose. In this ceremony, Israel placed his name on the young men, declaring that Ephraim’s descendants were to grow into a great company of nations while Manasseh’s were to become a single great nation.

One reason that so few have understood the significance of Israel’s declaration is that most people erroneously assume that all Israelites are Jews. Yet Judah—the Jews’ ancestor—was just one of the 12 sons of Jacob (Israel). After the death of King Solomon, more than seven centuries after Jacob’s declaration, Israel’s descendants split into two kingdoms—northern and southern. The citizens of the northern kingdom, with its capital at Samaria, were known as Israelites, and were taken into Assyrian captivity after Samaria fell in 721bc.

The southern kingdom of Judah, however—with its citizens known as Jews—continued on for a century after Israel’s fall, before falling to Babylonian invaders. From the time of Solomon onward, the histories of Israel and Judah have been quite distinct. While the promise of the kingly dynasty, and ultimately of the Messiah, came through the line of Judah, the birthright promises went to the descendants of Joseph (1 Chronicles 5:2).

With this bit of background in mind, we can understand the events that immediately preceded Jacob’s death. After blessing Ephraim and Manasseh, he called all of his sons together and told them what would befall their descendants in the last days (Genesis 49:1). Jacob described Joseph’s descendants as a colonizing people, and likened them to a fruitful vine whose branches would grow and spread out. They, as a result of God’s blessing,would be militarily strong and have great blessings of agricultural and mineral wealth (Genesis 49:22–26). This birthright blessing, which Israel conveyed to the descendants of Joseph, had been described as the "fatness of the earth" (Genesis 27:28) and included a future inheritance of lands that would produce an abundance of corn and wine.

Why was the timing of this future inheritance delayed for so long? A recurring theme of Scripture is that God has a time plan and does things right on schedule. Jesus told His disciples that the Father retains control of the times and seasons of human history (Acts 1:7). The Apostle Paul declared that God had determined in advance both the times and bounds of habitation for the nations (Acts 17:26). This prophetic time framework shows God’s sovereignty in history. Just as God declared that "seven times" would pass over Babylon, so that men would know that the Most High rules in the kingdom of men and gives it to whomsoever He will (Daniel 4:16–17), so also does history prove that seven prophetic "times" elapsed in the fulfillment of the end-time promises that Jacob made to his sons.

What is a prophetic "time"? Revelation 12 and 13 use the expressions "1,260 days" and "time, times, and half a time" and "42 months" interchangeably. Forty-two months of 30 days each are equal to 1,260 days—or three-and-a-half years. Clearly, then, 2,520 days—1,260 doubled—are the equivalent of "seven times." Numbers 14:34 and Ezekiel4:6 establish the principle that a day is equal to a year in fulfillment of Bible prophecy. History shows us that Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon took Jerusalem and brought Judah under his control in 604bc. This was in the third year of King Jehoiakim and the time at which Daniel and a number of other young men of prominent families were taken away captive to Babylon.

Interestingly, it was exactly 2,520 years later—seven prophetic "times"—that the stage was set for an end-time Jewish nation in its ancient homeland. It was in November 1917 that the British government issued the famous Balfour Declaration, announcing that it would "look with favour" upon a Jewish homeland in Palestine. A few weeks later, British forces under Viscount Allenby entered Jerusalem and freed it from the Turks.

When looking at the history of the northern kingdom (the House of Israel), we find a similar phenomenon. From the time of Israel’s being taken into Assyrian captivity in 721bc, the passing of 2,520 years brings us to the year 1800. This was the time when the British and American nations began their rapid rise to world dominance, which would endure for the entire 19th and 20th centuries.

A Warning About Forgetfulness

Clearly, the U.S. and the British Commonwealth nations have received the fulfillment of the ancient promises that the Creator God made to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. God has given them prosperity that no other peoples on earth have known. Just as Britain mushroomed into the greatest empire in the history of the world, beginning at the start of the 19th century, so the U.S. quickly rose to become the greatest single nation in history. A great nation and a great company of nations possessing the choicest places of the earth—this description is the fulfillment of what elderly Jacob promised to Joseph’s sons in the end time. This describes the English-speaking peoples as it does no others in the entire history of the world.

Acquiring the vast Louisiana Purchase territory was only the beginning of expansion for the U.S. Spreading across the North American continent to the Pacific coast within a generation, the American nation was destined—along with Canada and Australia—to become the breadbasket of the world.

However, with great blessings come great responsibilities. Just before Israel first entered into the Promised Land, Moses gave a solemn warning. After describing the "bounty" of the land into which God was leading Israel (a description that is certainly appropriate today for the lands held by the English-speaking peoples), Moses warned the people not to forget the sourceof that bounty (Deuteronomy 8:7-14). He cautioned that the most dangerous time is not the time of hardship, but rather the time of abundance. In times of adversity and trial, it is easy to be conscious of our need for God’s help and blessing. It is in the time when we have "bread without scarceness" that people tend to have an illusion of self-sufficiency and self-reliance.

Though the U.S. and Canada both have holidays set aside as Thanksgiving Day, the real meaning underlying them has become lost. In the U.S., this day is increasingly called "turkey day" and has become little more than a day of football, overeating, and the start of the "Christmas shopping season." How many are truly thankful to the Creator of the universe, recognizing that the wealth that they enjoy is the result of God’s faithfulness to His covenant with Abraham? Rather, as their wealth has multiplied, the U.S. and British Commonwealth nations have increasingly forgotten God and His laws.

When the English-speaking nations rose to prominence in the 19th century, the Bible was the most widely read book in the English-speaking world. The Ten Commandments were acknowledged as the underpinning of national laws. Today, that is no longer the case. As courts and legislatures seek to legalize the perversions for which God anciently expelled the nations of the Canaanites, we should not forget that God will not be mocked.

Moses made it plain that if the Israelites forgot God, and refused to obey Him, they would "surely perish" from the land that God gave (Deuteronomy 8:19–20). While the Louisiana Purchase might rightly be described as the "greatest land deal ever," we must never forget that it was not nearly so much the result of American ingenuity as it was the result of the Creator fulfilling His promises. As the U.S. and British Commonwealth nations increasingly turn their collective backs on the One who gave them His choicest bounty, we should realize that the same One who gives national wealth can also take it away.

Those who refuse to remember their Creator in this time of abundance will ultimately be forced to seek Him in the midst of the greatest time of trial and adversity in mankind’s history. Scripture calls this "the time of Jacob’s trouble" (Jeremiah 30:7).

What about you? Do you really recognize that His laws are the source of the righteous conduct that truly exalts a nation? (Proverbs 14:34) Only those who recognize His role, and obey His laws, will have His protection in the trying times that will conclude this age and set the stage for the coming of the Messiah!






{First published in 2003, it is edited for space considerations and is re-published here by permission of Tomorrow's World magazine. A long read but well worth it. It lends new meaning to George W. Bush's remark, "I'm the president of the greatest nation on the face of the earth" - Ed.}





Albuquerque Red Light Camera Lies

by Brad Hines

"Want the scoop on Albuquerque's red light camera program?

Update 2/16/17   Redflex to pay $20 million to Chicago to settle lawsuit over red-light camera bribery


The City of Albuquerque has made over 14 Million dollars fining its citizens for red light camera violations and it has done everything it possibly can to jeopardize their safety in entrapping its citizens into these fines. It has done everything it can to diminish road safety, increase the number of tickets and accidents through the manipulation of yellow light timing and slipstreams, which has resulted in an overall increase in the number of accidents at camera intersections by 20% since the programs started. (Source: Albuquerque Journal, June 2006, Middle Rio Grande Council of Governments, 2008) If the city stands to gain money by having an inefficient traffic system, it will ultimately lead to frustrated drivers, vehicles wearing out faster, increased emissions, and yes, increased traffic accidents from vehicles attempting to stay in the slipstream.

Red Light camera lies..



Already, normally law abiding citizens are fighting back using reflective coatings and license plate covers on their cars. Some have even resorted to placing fake letters on the plate to obfuscate the plate numbers. Others still, have simply registered their cars under corporations or LLCs to make them impervious to the law which makes the program a complete joke. Many cities that have experimented with the Cameras have found them to be a huge boost to revenue. More responsible cities have found they also increase accidents at intersections. Responsible cities and governments have stopped these programs. What makes Albuquerque think its program is any different?

The attitude of city government seems to be to ignore these issues. I suppose as long as the city is making money, it's ok to cause more traffic accidents than they are stopping, right? I think it's difficult to make someone understand something if their job performance and revenue depends on them not understanding it. Let's get our slipstreams in gear and make sure our citizens get the protection and due process they deserve.

Check out RedFlex.com for the company information on the Red light camera program. Isn't it amazing the first thing the website mentions is profitability and offers ZERO safety statistics?



Comments

Comment notifications for this article:

Re: Albuquerque Red Light Camera Lies..


by Anonymous on Tue 03 Mar 2009 12:10 PM CST | Permanent Link

I don't trust anything about these cameras - they are an ATM machine disguised as a public safety initiative. My brother in AZ says they are everywhere. He bought this special GPS device called GPS Angel that knows where all the speed cameras and red light cameras are and beeps when he's near one.  http://www.gpsangel.com


Noah's Arc..Biblical legend or scientific reality?

by Blog Administrator

{The photo above is a half scale replica of Noah's Arc built in the Netherlands by Dutch Creationist Johan Huibers as a testament to his faith in the literal truth of the Bible. The Ark is 150 cubits long, 30 cubits high and 20 cubits wide. That's two-thirds the length of a football field and as high as a three-story house. Photos and captions courtesy of various news and information sources -Ed.}

The bible indicates that a great flood was initiated by God because the earth was filled with violence and blood. (Gen 6)

There are historical accounts of a great cataclysmic flood in many cultures admitted by secular historians. The legend of Gilgamesh describes the great flood as recorded in Indian folklore. Although secular historians discount the flood as nothing more than a myth perpetuated in folklore, there is much physical evidence apart from the bible that affirms the great flood.

40 days and 40 nights: The biblical account maintains that the great flood was initiated by rain for 40 days and 40 nights and that the fountains of the deep were opened. The rain would have been driven by the fountains of the deep erupting into the atmosphere from a cataclysmic event such as an earthquake. A Mid-ocean ridge traversing the earth like the seams of a baseball suggests that a fault in the earth's crust released this pressurized water.

The earth's tilt and/or wobble was likely altered from the huge mass of water now accumulating on the earth's surface, resulting in dramatic climate change after the flood.

Photo: Working Replica of Noah's Ark Opened In SCHAGEN, Netherlands

The resulting flood depth may be estimated by a simple calculation. The total known water on earth is 1.4 billion cubic kilometers or 4.592E18 ft3 (cubic feet) of water. The earth's surface area can be estimated from 4/3 Pi(r)2, where r= earth's radius.

Then 4/3 * (3.14) * (2.089E07 ft)2 = 1.827 E15 ft2 (Sq. Feet). The maximum flood water height attainable is then: 4.592E18 ft3/1.827 E15 ft2 = 2513 ft. So the water depth during the flood could not exceed 2513 ft and must be near the maximum depth after 150 days by the Genesis account. The height of the pre-flood mountains was therefore 2500 ft or less.

The earth before the flood was not 75% water as it is today. The bible only mentions one sea in which the four rivers leaving the garden of Eden, emptied, i.e. Pison, Gihon, Hiddekel, and Euphrates. The release of water from the fountains of the deep would create massive change in the earth's surface, pushing up huge uplifts and creating vast sea trenches. The Isthmus of Panama is evidence of tectonic plate shift created by flood post trauma in which billions of tons of water were released under pressure.

"Contrary to previous evidence..the Isthmus of Panama was most likely formed by a Central American Peninsula colliding slowly with the South American continent through tectonic plate movement [during and after a great flood].. The canal's maintenance also exposes sediment layers and marine animal fossils, as well as strata of rocks and clay specific to numerous environments, including lagoon, delta, swamp, woodland and dry tropical forest." This is the expected progression of the land as the great floodwaters continued to abate. So the higher mountains that we observe today would have been created during and after the great flood.

Preflood seawater composition was very different, only mildly salty compared to 35,000 ppm salinity today. The evolutionary account of origin also makes a similar claim for mild salinity in the early oceans: "In the beginning the primeval seas must have been only slightly salty. But ever since the first rains descended upon the young Earth hundreds of millions of years ago [or thousands of years ago as in a great flood] and ran over the land breaking up rocks and transporting their minerals to the seas, the ocean has become saltier." - Herbert Swenson, US Geological Survey Publication. So how did the seas get so salty?

Given the huge underground caverns of salt and other mineral deposits throughout the earth, water released from beneath the crust, i.e. from the fountains of the deep, would have passed through many of these beds on its way to the surface leaching out minerals. Salt and other dissolvable solids would be picked up by the floodwaters and transported to the newly created seas. It likely took centuries for the salt levels to attain their present day levels as opposed to evolutionists' claim of 'millions of years'. Periodic melting of the polar icecaps causes certain regions of the oceans to be less salty.

The materials contained in seawater are consistent with known mineral deposits across the globe and provides good support for the bible's account.

The flood not only accounts for the origin of the oceans but also of the rich petroleum deposits we find today. Oil is formed from the remains of tiny plants and animals (plankton) that died in ancient seas between 10 million and 600 million years ago during a great flood. After the organisms died, they sank into the sand and mud at the bottom of the sea. Bacteria acting in the underground caverns where dead animals and plants were trapped after the floodwaters had abated, produced vast quantities of crude oil.

Seawater also contains the two most important gases for sustaining life, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Availability of Food after the flood:

Evolutionists have claimed that there would have been no food available after the flood because of the salt water. It should be noted that saltwater isn't always detrimental to plant growth, plants exhibit some tolerance depending on the degree of salinity. Belgium suffered salt water flooding of many of their crop fields during the 2nd world war but were still able to grow: "Seawater flooding in Belgium produces bumper Crop"

Supplies may have been low immediately after disembarking from the ark but seaweed (kelp) would have been abundant. It's rich in Iodine, so it could have been eaten by both man (as it is in Japan) and beasts, a boost to the immune system. Especially helpful in lieu of disease from contact with human and animal waste in the arc and being near dead creatures immediately upon leaving the arc.

The bible says: "Make thee an Arc of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark; and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch..The length of the arc shall be 300 cubits, the breadth of it 50 cubits, and the height of it 30 cubits." - - Gen 6:v14-15

Photo: A contractor by trade, Huibers built the ark of cedar and pine.  Biblical Scholars debate exactly what the wood used by Noah would have been

Ark construction and feasibility

The Ark was most likely space frame or Semi-monocoque (hybrid) design rather than rib and keel construction. This eliminates the hogging associated with ships like the USS Constitution not to mention the logistic problems of a 300 cubit (600') keel.

No one knows what gopher wood is today. Several ideas have been put forth suggesting that it might be some form of laminated construction material or simply pitch saturated wood. If the latter, then why state the double requirement for pitch "within and without"? Would not the term 'gopher' itself convey that meaning? And, if it's a laminate, then why isn't it stated as to how the layers are to be developed as God did when telling Moses on the mount to take care to make all the things He commanded according to the patterns given?

The fact that gopher wood is not mentioned anywhere else in the flood account implies that it was a wood well known to the inhabitants of the time. It may be just another term for a common tree variety today that fell out of usage after most perished in the flood. Brazilian Ipe {eepay} is a wood known by many different names, some of which are 'Amapa', 'Greenheart', Tahuari'... etc. The unique 'gopher' designation could describe a variety of wood species just as the term 'Santos Mahogany' does.

"Santos Mahogany is grown in countries all the way from Mexico to Argentina... This rich species of Mahogany is deep reddish-brown to orange-brown in color in its heartwood. It is tougher and stronger than typical Genuine Mahogany, and it wears incredibly well over time. "

If the Arc's dimensions can be taken literally then why not the type of wood? Gopher, like 'Santos Mahogany', could have grown only in the area where the ark was built. Destroy the habitat and you destroy the species. Extinction is not unknown in our own time. The available supply of Gopher wood may have been destroyed either by the force of the flood, a higher salt-water concentration or simply an over abundance of water from the ensuing deluge.

The term 'gopher' does not necessarily infer a stronger wood than other species but perhaps it simply offered superior decay resistance like Ipe. Ipe resists insects, moisture and rot, highly desirable characteristics for a construction material during the 100 year long building of the Arc. Gopher may have been a wood better suited to marine use, just as one selects maple for building furniture, rather than cottonwood or elm. Many kinds of wood today are capable of satisfying the structural loading requirements of the Arc such as Hickory, Teak, and White oak.

The Arc and its frame would have been constructed with trunnels or dowel pins made with a hardwood like locust. Although Brazilian Ipe and Locust woods are difficult to work by hand, they make excellent fasteners because of their shear resistance 2060 psi and 1760 psi respectively. All wood in and outside the Arc would have been coated with a pitch sealant.

Pitch: a dark oily liquid obtained by distillation of coal tar, used as a preservative for wood. Pitch contains some 150 different compounds, creosote is one used to preserve wood such as rail ties. Noah's pitch likely didn't depend on distillation. "There are examples of stave churches that have been preserved with pine tar for nearly a thousand years.."

Photo: Deck not quite ready in time for the opening...

Arc construction began in May of 2005.

Huibers did most of the work himself with his own hands, of course, using modern tools and with some occasional help from his son Roy.

The bible indicates that there were 3 decks. The door or gangway would have been located at the 2nd deck elevation, whether in the side or in one of the ends, is still a matter under consideration. An earthen or wooden ramp would have had to be built by Noah and his family for the animals to board.

In the real Arc, ramps would have guided the animals to the upper or lower decks. Noah, his family and smaller animals and birds were likely on the top deck where the Arc's windows provided light.

Rainwater could have been collected during the 40 days rain depending on how the Arc's windows were fashioned. The food supply could be augmented by fishing from an Arc window at either or both ends of the ship.

The Coelacanth (see-la-kanth) fish "..astonished ichtyologists..[who] had been convinced that the last coelacanths were found only off eastern Africa, mainly in the Commoros archipelago. They had been thought to have died out around the time dinosaurs became extinct {70 million years ago -Ed.}, until one was found there in 1938. "

Photo: The massive central door in the side of Noah's Ark opened for the first crowd of curious townsfolk to behold the wonder.

In Noah's full size Arc, there would be room for some 35,000 species in small cages not including those that could survive in the sea.

Animals taken aboard the ark would have likely been very young, despite the obvious accommodation benefit, they would have longer lives in which to reproduce and replenish the earth. Small animals and reptiles would not grow dramatically in one year on the arc and reptiles are known to go long periods without food. In the dark holds of the ship, the animals would have spent most of their time sleeping.

The vertebrates would require approximately 146 railroad cars to house at the smallest 18" cubit dimension and the ark could contain some 500-railroad cars at the smallest dimension of the cubit.

There would be adequate storage space for food and water for each creature.
Photo Rampway similar to what would have been used to guide animals above or below the main deck.

It's calculated that the real Arc drew between 19 to 24 feet of waterline with its cargo and "..all manner of food" and water.

The first deck would have been completely submerged.

Dinosaurs & Man: (Job 40, v15-23 and Job 41, v15-21 ): "..in 1856, French workers were digging a railway tunnel when something monstrous stumbled towards them, emerging from a large boulder from the Jurassic period, that they had just split open... it was examined by a palaeontologist, and identified as a Pterodactyl.."

Evolutionists claim that man experienced a brush with extinction in the past, which supports the role Noah and his sons had in repopulating the earth.

'Human line 'nearly split in two': "The Genographic Project's findings are also consistent with the idea - held for some years now - that modern humans had a close brush with extinction in the evolutionary past [Or from a great flood!]. The number of early humans may have shrunk as low as 2,000 [or just Noah & his family!] before numbers began to expand again in the Late Stone Age. "

Photo: Life-size models of giraffes, elephants, lions, crocodiles, zebras,  bison and other animals greet visitors as they arrive in the main hold.

Skin color after the flood: (Acts 8:v27) If Adam and Eve were Middle Eastern in complexion, all the variations of man from Caucasian to Negroid could have been passed along to the generations from this genetic trait through Noah. The people of like coloration would have tended to separate into like bands or tribes. Scientists Find A DNA Change That Accounts For White Skin.. "In fact, several scientists said..new work shows just how small a biological difference is reflected by skin color. The newly found mutation involves a change of just one letter of DNA code out of the 3.1 billion letters in the human genome -- the complete instructions for making a human being."

Pigmentation Gene - SLC24A5: The anthropology of race and the discovery of a skin color gene, SLC24A5 ".. researchers then looked at two different human populations in which people with European and African ancestors had mixed relatively recently - African-Americans and African-Caribbeans. They found that, on average, people with two copies of the European version of the gene had the lightest skin. People with two copies of the non-European version of the gene had darker skin, and people with one copy of each version of the gene had skin color somewhere in between. "

Further Evidence of the great flood: Trees petrified in the aftermath of the flood: CONCLUSION.." The evidence presented here provides a basis for additional detailed research that could be done. Such research would be beneficial for our understanding of these unique fossil deposits. Offhand, the in situ model would appear to be the simplest and most natural explanation, but closer examination uncovers features that are difficult to explain for trees in growth position. A transport model involving the flotation of trees and organic debris in a body of water, as illustrated in Spirit Lake, gives a better fit to the data as observed in the Yellowstone Petrified Forests. We propose that the Yellowstone Petrified Forests provide an example of catastrophic deposition" as in the onset of a great flood.

"Now that I am old and Gray...give me the time to tell This new generation (and their children too) About all your mighty miracles." (Psalm 71:18 ) The bible says what it means and it means what it says.

Attachments:

          Noah's Arc Wind Effects.doc (329KB)

    Noah's Arc _HeaveDowelPinEffects5_11_10.doc (154 KB)

         Noah'sArcStructuralSummary3_7_11.doc (240KB)

       Noah'sArcRollstability12_10_11.doc (116KB)

 

Comments

Re:Noah's Arc..biblical legend or scientific reality?

by Allen Williams on Sat 27 Jun 2009 10:13 PM CDT | Profile | Permanent Link

There are two planned upgrades in addendum form for Noah's Arc. The first is a summary of structural calculations on the full size Arc, now included as Attachment 1. The second is a future update on dynamic analysis of roll stabiliry under different assumed sea and wave formations. - Ed.

Re: Re:Noah's Arc..biblical legend or scientific reality?

by Anonymous on Tue 12 Jan 2010 01:32 PM CST | Permanent Link

Arc Statistical tests on Acceleration Data have been added as of 1/12/10 - Ed.


Re:Noah's Arc..Dynamic Roll Resonance analysis

by Allen Williams on Tue 28 Jul 2009 01:16 PM CDT | Profile | Permanent Link

Attachment 2 is the first part of the dynamic analysis of the Arc under different sea and wave conditions. The first section is roll resonance in beam sea conditions.

This attachment will be updated as additional simulation results become available

Noah's Arc..Dynamic Heave Resonance analysis

by Anonymous on Sun 03 Jan 2010 01:03 PM CST | Permanent Link

Attachment 2 has now been upgraded to reflect Heave resonance tests under four distinct sea conditions. It includes acceleration, i.e. dy/dt effects on structural integrity.

Further sea tests under wind loading conditions are forthcoming as time permits.

Noah's Arc..Coincident Heave and Roll Resonance effects on Dowel Pin Fasteners

by Anonymous on Tue 11 May 2010 09:37 AM CDT | Permanent Link

The Arcs wooden fasteners have been evaluated for Heave and Roll Resonance effects:

In the event of a coincident heave force occurring during some portion of an Arc roll, additional stress is transmitted to the wooden dowel fasteners. Although such dowels have been used in the construction of a wide variety of joints, which resist axial, shear, moment and torsion forces, the dowel pins are subjected only to axial or shear forces here. Torsion forces are avoided.

Re:Noah's Arc..biblical legend or scientific reality?

by Anonymous on Sat 18 Feb 2012 09:49 AM CST | Permanent Link

The 'Wind-Sea effects on Arc Arc stability' attachment has been added.



SNOPES Exposed

 by Allen Williams on Fri 16 Jan 2009 08:00 AM CST


Update 9-3-2018
  Do You Trust Snopes? You Won’t After Reading This.  Snopes is now 50% owned by an ad agency (Proper Media) and they make money by generating millions of views on the 3rd-party advertisements on their website. It simply makes sense for them to seek out articles that are viral to “debunk”, so that they can piggy-back on that traffic and generate more advertising revenue. 
  • Snopes now has a hired team of suspect fact checkers who collaborate to debunk falsehoods that are trending on the internet.
Snopes doesn’t have a formal screening process for hiring fact checkers and for evaluating applicants for any potential conflicts of interest. Without such standards, it is very easy for them to be infiltrated by those who work with the industry and who have a hidden agenda.

12-21-2016 Update:  Snopes Fact Checker Accused Of Fraud For Prostitute Embezzlement Scheme  “Snopes, the website Facebook chose to “fact check” stories to eliminate “fake news”, has been accused of defrauding the website to pay for prostitutes.”

10-25-12013 Update: Snopes NO MORE The Self-proclaimed Debunker Of Urban Legend has been debunked.. Supreme Court Dockets show Elena Kagan had represented Barrack Obama in challenges to his birth certificate. Gaylan King has produced convincing evidence of Elena Kagan representing Obama and why she was nominated for the high court. Gaylan notes: "I went to Snopes to check something about the dockets of the new Supreme Court Justice. Elena Kagan, who Obama appointed, and Snopes said the email was false and there were no such dockets. So I Googled the Supreme Court, typed in Obama-Kagan, and guess what? Yep, you got it; Snopes lied! Every one of those dockets are there."

There is some pretty good circumstantial evidence that the Democratic Alliance and/or George Soros funds SNOPES


In September, The Daily Caller News Foundation published an investigative news story that revealed that millions of tax dollars had been sent from the Department of State to a charity created by Secretary of State John Kerry’s daughter.”

Three months later, a Snopes article attempted to cover up the controversy by discrediting The Daily Caller and its investigative findings.”

07-28-2016 Update: Snopes lied about the presence of American Flags at the 2016 Democratic Convention.  If the Mikkelsons can find ONE wrong item in any STORY then it’s all FALSE even if what has been claimed is 99% true as in Snopes Caught Lying About Lack Of American Flags At Democratic Convention.  “Myth-busting website Snopes flagrantly lied about the lack of visible American flags on the first day of the Democratic Convention, claiming an image from the second day of the convention was actually from the first day in an attempt to debunk a factual story from The Daily Caller.

David and Barbara Mikkelson are the founders and operators of 'Snopes.com', an e-mail rumor debunking site. The couple resides in the San Fernando Valley of California and reputedly founded the local Folklore Society. They have earned a reputation for determining the 'fact or fictitious ' nature of widely circulated e-mails in the Internet rumor mill. Recently an "eRumor about Snopes.com accusing them [of] being owned by a flaming liberal and..in the tank for Obama.." has been reported on by TruthorFiction.

Truth or Fiction denies any political bias on Snopes reporting but that doesn't resolve with a number of cases that I've researched. For example, Snopes claims that the author's assertion that the 'Three men who brought down Wall Street" were chief economic advisers to Obama was false, however semantics aside, the Washington Post has reported that the Obama campaign has been seeking advice from Raines on mortgages and banking issues. Interestingly enough, 'Truth or fiction' disputes Snopes findings in this very case.

In 2007, The American Family Association issued an action alert warning of the dangers of pending 'hate crime' legislation, particularly the threat of sacrificing religious liberty for 'special interest protection' which is really what the gay movement is after.

"The American Family Association is taking Snopes, the noted urban legend debunking resource, to task for its conclusion about the "hate crimes" legislation pending in the U.S. Senate." The AFA, which stands for traditional family values, issued an "Action Alert" to its constituents recently, warning that pending [hate crime] legislation could lead to a censorship of biblical perspectives on homosexuality. Snopes labeled the alert "false," denying any portion of the law could be applied to thought or speech. " - World Net Daily

It appears that the Mikkelsons, like many liberals who find minor flaws in a presentation, immediately discredit the entire piece as if the other 98% were somehow invalid. Snopes branded the AFA alert 'false' because they personally saw no threat to individual liberty within the hate crime wording.

'Hate-Crimes' are 'thought crimes' that are intended to punish the individual for 'wrong thinking' as only the state will define and preclude any presumption of innocence. The Mikkelson's 'false' statement assessment on the AFA e-mail flies in the face of recorded events in other countries, where people have either been fined or gone to jail for criticizing the lifestyle.

Pastor Ake Green, a Swedish pastor was sentenced to a month in jail for criticizing the gay lifestyle. He was later acquitted by the Swedish High Court. Then there was Scott Brockie, a Canadian who was fined $500o in 1999 for refusing to print blank letterhead and envelopes for the Canadian gay & lesbian archives. Next two Lesbians filed a Human Rights Complaint against a New Jersey United Methodist Church for denying them the use of a private Church pavillion on the beachfront for their sordid nuptials. The Church lost its tax exemption on the property as a result. The UMC is now suing the state for forcing gay marriage on the Church's property.

In a subsequent effort to debunk another 'urban legend', Snopes denies the truth of the claims for 500 tons of Uranium being shipped to Canada from Iraq despite MSNBC having published it and truthorfiction having confirmed its accuracy. CNN also reported a similar story in July 2007 on the shipment of Uranium to Canada. This is one of several instances where Snopes has been caught playing politics rather than making a factual determination.

Other discrepancies in SNOPES reporting: Obama ties to Islam "Snopes reply claims there is no evidence Obama has ever been a Muslim radical or otherwise...also quoted Obamas Senatorial page and statements as if they were irrefutable evidence. "

"In his autobiography, "Dreams From My Father," Obama mentions studying the Koran and describes the public school as "a Muslim school." - LA Times March 16, 2007 - http://www.snopes.com/politics/obama/muslim.asp

In a paradoxical 'flip-flop', Snopes confirms a request to Princeton to put a 'restriction' on distribution of any copies of Michelle Obama's senior thesis, ignoring her statement that "America was a nation founded on 'crime and hatred.' Apparently, her remark isn't radical enough to qualify nor is Obama's known association with weatherman William Ayers.

If you can believe the Newsbusters blog account, who notes: "the studied incuriosity of the Main Stream Media over the Che Guevara flag hanging in the office of Barack Obama campaign volunteer, Maria Isabel. " This was fairly well reported over the Internet, and apparently something Snopes overlooked as not germane to a radical predisposition. It appears that Communism may have gained a new acceptability at Snopes.

The Mikkelsons seem more concerned with stumping for the popular notion of ‘social justice’ here than with factual determinations. Either the Mikkelsons aren't sharp enough to understand the distinction or they're simply liberal shills.

It's a risky proposition when a small group of individuals become the 'self appointed' experts on 'what is truth' on the Internet. The notion of a select few being the truth determiners across the Internet can be a useful tool to the politicos to contain and minimize damaging information that has inadvertently found its way into cyber space.

Snopes isn't doing anything more than what the average citizen is capable of doing for themselves given the time and inclination to investigate e-rumors. The Mikkelson's determinations of 'Truth or Fiction' cannot be deemed anymore accurate or reliable than the current news media.






Why 'tax free' municipal bonds are a bad Investment

by Allen Williams


The lure of municipal bonds as a ‘tax free’ investment can be very appealing, however, it’s the risks that significantly decrease its potential, risks that are never satisfactorily explained by the purveyors of these instruments, other than in ambiguous terms. The claim is that one would require an investment paying 8% to provide the same benefit as a tax free municipal bond, but is that true?

Congress ensures that no one truly attains tax-free status on any investment beyond themselves, despite many statements to the contrary, because of the Alternative Minimum Tax. Government simply adjusts the tax tables and reduces the social security benefit by an equivalent amount for tax-free interest received.

NuVeen offers tax free bond investments in the states of Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin. The company offers four basic types of municipal bonds that claim tax-free status. They are ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, and ‘R.’ We will confine discussion here to ‘A’ and ‘B’ bonds. ‘B’ bonds perform nearly identical to ‘A’ bonds but provide slightly less yield because they lack liquidity. Once purchased, they require a holding period before they can be sold. ‘A’ municipal bonds provide a slightly better return than class ‘B’ municipal bonds because the management fee has thus far been less. But, you may expect to pay at least a 4.0% ‘commission’ up front for the privilege of purchasing ‘A’ tax free bonds. The company’s prospectus notes that certain ‘special’ charges may apply when buying $50,000 or more of ‘A’ bonds depending on who offers them and the terms of the fund.

One may expect to pay a monthly management fee anywhere from 0.53% to 0.75% on the gross assets invested to manage the funds, regardless of the type bond purchased or its performance throughout the time of the holding. There is a penalty for selling class ‘B’ bonds ‘too quickly’, thereby depriving the fund manager of his ‘hard earned’ management fee.

A first investment in ‘B’ tax-free municipal bonds was made during the late summer, i.e. Aug. of 1998 through NuVeen Investments or The Boston Group as they are now known. Although the funds were purchased in late August, it was Oct 8th of that year before the first dividend check was received. It seems that the Capitol One true blue Kansas broker was able to collect the interest on my investment, as the funds were deposited with him for 7 weeks while Nuveen ‘processed’ the new account. When questioned on this, the broker indicated that it was typical because of the high demand for these investments. So, either the broker enhanced his earnings or both he and the company benefited during this time. It’s tantamount to buying a $300,000 house with 20% down and closing several months later. The realtor pockets the interest on your $60,ooo down payment with no credit to you during the wait. And, that’s in addition to the selling commission; it’s one reason why realtors favor substantial down payments.

NuVeen seems to function loosely and haphazardly at best for an investment firm. Reports on the bond funds investment performance tended to skip data such as the dividend rate during the period of interest. Early on, I had been required to garner a signature medallion notarization to buy or sell my bond shares over the telephone, which was done on March 4th, 2005 in anticipation of divesting some of my holdings. However, on March 23rd I received a notice from the company that my Telephone privileges had been cancelled.

NuVeen was informed that no one had authority beyond me to cancel since I was the sole owner of the account and had a valid notarization. However, I had to Fax a second copy of the original notarized form (and threaten them) in addition to the one I had already mailed. It was Sept. 22, 2005 before I finally got the company to re-instate the telephone privileges that I had requested in my original March 4th letter. The broker had apparently acted to thwart my ability to sell without utilizing his services.

The holding period for converting Kansas Class ‘B’ to Class ‘A’ tax-free municipal bonds was changed from 6 to 5 years and then back to 6 years again on little more than company whimsy. Class ‘B’ bond rollovers are automatic after 6 years, whether you want them to or not and whether or not it is favorable to you, the holder. In the former case, it prevented me from divesting some of my holdings for more lucrative financial opportunities because an earlier buyout of Nuveen put me right back in the CDSC band that I was just exiting under the original terms. So, instead of being able to sell at the end of the 6th year from the original five-year hold, I had to wait until the 7th year before I could divest.

The ‘tax free’ fund was trading at $10.63 per share in Sept of 1998. Despite some brief upswings, the fund had fallen to $10.54 by the following year and at the end of the 6 year holding period, just before the Fannie Mae and Freddy Mac bankruptcies, had settled in around $10.15 per share. So, what does this translate to in terms of dollars and cents? Well, first let’s calculate the cost of bond conversion. What? You thought they just transferred the shares like you deposit money? Not so, here’s how conversion works on a typical $10,000 class ‘B’ investment purchased at $10.63 per share and now worth $10.44 per share:

940.734 class ‘B’ shares x $10.44/share = $9821.26

Class ‘A’ bonds typically command a higher per share price than ‘B’ bonds largely due to their liquidity. So, you will likely lose shares as well as portfolio value in any bond transitions since there is no set time prior to Dec. 31st of the last holding year to require the company to effect conversion. It likely won’t be the next business day from the anniversary of purchase as is the case with a bank investment. The transaction is done automatically by the company if the shares have not been divested and you don’t get any options for the time of conversion. So now, class ‘A’ shares at $10.53/share are purchased by the Fund:

$9821.26/10.53 = 932.693 of class ‘A’ shares

In this case, 8.04 shares per $10,000 of investment were lost in the roll over. So, the holder has lost both capital and shares as a result of the ‘B’ to ‘A’ municipal bond conversion. Now, sum the losses for a $100,000 to $250,000 investment in bonds and you’re looking at some serious capital gain losses.

Well just sell off the ‘B’ bonds before they convert and there’s no problem, right? Well that’s not-quite true. A purchaser pays no up front fee to buy class ‘B’ bonds but pays a Contingent Deferred Sales Charge, i.e. CDSC, if they are sold anytime before 6 years and you may expect this requirement to change occasionally in favor of the bond issuer especially after you own the investment.

The CDSC charge is graduated based on the number of years the bond is held as follows: 5% the first year, 4% the second and 3rd years, 3% the 4th year, 2% during the 5th and 1% during the 6th. So, class ‘B’ bonds must be held 7 years before there is no CDSC sales charge to the holder, assuming the company doesn’t decide to ‘up’ the requirement. Yes, issuers of municipal bonds get to ‘change the rules ‘ after you own the investment due to buyouts and mergers just like banks, except banks usually continue to honor any preexisting CD terms from the financial institution bought. However, investment concerns like NuVeen, dealing in municipal bonds, do not. There is also the problem of declining share worth because bond values fluctuate like stock market shares, so losing $0.50 cents per share on the sellout is of greater concern than paying small CDSC commissions. There is an optimum time to sell.

NuVeen has a history of buyouts since my original 1998 purchase, the most recent is their acquisition by the Boston Group. Buyouts often present a convenient terminus for changing the rules on existing investments. This company has altered dividend quantities, dividend pay out times, the hold time for divesting bonds as well as the holding period for conversion to Class ‘A’ bonds.

Dividends from the fund were initially due on the 4th of the month but the most recent buyout settled on the 9th and often was the 11th before they were actually distributed. It should be noted that there is no penalty to the company, no matter when they make the distribution. The monthly holding time requirement for selling bonds shifted to the 29th of the month, i.e. if the bonds are sold prior to this date, the holder automatically forfeits the dividend for that month. So, if I held the investment until the 28th of the month and then sold, I would lose my dividend because its not prorated and the sale was prior to the 29th. You won’t read this on their website at http://www.Nuveen.com, change notification comes by letter and it can come at anytime.

In November of 2007, I received just such a letter: "We would like to take this opportunity to inform you of a change that will take place regarding your NuVeen investments bond mutual fund dividends. Starting in December of 2007, you can expect to receive your monthly dividend check approximately four days later than you receive that check currently. This change is a result of moving the record date from on or about the 9th of each month to three business days prior to the payable date. Moving the record date will allow a larger window during which investments received will be eligible to earn the dividend payable the following month." - Nuveen Investments.

This is pure nonsense. The shift has been made to facilitate the brokerage, first in collection of the monthly management fee and secondly, to accommodate delayed interest payments from the participating states, it gives no benefit whatsoever to the bondholder. The Nuveen letter also fails to note a corresponding shift in the monthly holding time, prior to divesting, as a result of the dividend change.

Tax-free municipal bonds work along the same lines as a ‘slush fund.’ They’re intended to be ready resources for states that can’t manage money. Interestingly enough, both Kansas and Michigan fall into that category with high tax economies and poor growth. States with poor economic policies seek to increase taxes to pay the interest on what they borrow through the sale of bonds. Impoverishment of the citizenry and cheating investors is of no concern to those who hold political office, staying elected is the only objective. Investment firms like NuVeen are ready to capitalize on state's poor fiscal management.

Income tax table adjustments and negotiating lower bond rates are means by which states can ameliorate interest burden and hedge against future operating costs at the expense of taxpayers.

Unlike fixed investments, bond interest rates fluctuate with economic conditions. Bond rates generally fall when the economy is good and increase when it is bad because states are more likely to vorrow during poor economic times. However, Kansas NuVeen municipal bonds ‘went south’ right from the start and were poor performers during the time of my holdings, regardless of the condition of the economy, demonstrating a steady downward trend over a ten-year period.

Figure: Ten Year trend of Bond prices and Dividends for NuVeen Investments

My dividends began at 0.0370 per share initially, dropping to 0.0345 and then to 0.028 per share in April of 2004, a 24% drop in dividend rates in just 6 years. The rate remained at 0.028 through December of 2006. Shares were trading for $10.28 during this same period.

The supposed strength of tax free muni-bonds is the taxes you don’t pay. The NuVeen motto claims, "it’s not what you earn, its what you keep." So how much did I keep due to NuVeen bond fund performance? Well, in 1999 the tax benefit was $152 dollars per 1000 of capital allocated to bonds but by 2006 the savings were down to $101 dollars per 1000. This is a 35.6% drop in tax benefits for capital invested in bonds in addition to the 24% drop in dividend rates during the same period.

It’s an obvious conclusion at this point that the fund is managed for the benefit of the states that sell the bonds.






Iodine for Health

{This informative article was first published on LewRockwell.com. It has been re-published here by special permission of Dr. Miller. It's a long read but the health incites on iodine usage provided by Dr. Miller make it well worthwhile, particularly in the area of cancer prevention. We also wish to gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Cleveland Chiropractic Institute of Overland Park, Kansas for their assistance in locating these materials on important public health issues. - Ed.}

by Donald W. Miller, Jr., M.D.

There is growing evidence that Americans would have better health and a lower incidence of cancer and fibrocystic disease of the breast if they consumed more iodine. A decrease in iodine intake coupled with an increased consumption of competing halogens, fluoride and bromide, has created an epidemic of iodine deficiency in America.

People in the U.S. consume an average 240 micrograms (μg) of iodine a day. In contrast, people in Japan consume more than 12 milligrams (mg) of iodine a day (12,000 μg), a 50-fold greater amount. They eat seaweed, which include brown algae (kelp), red algae (nori sheets, with sushi), and green algae (chlorella). Compared to terrestrial plants, which contain only trace amounts of iodine (0.001 mg/gm), these marine plants have high concentrations of this nutrient (0.5-8.0 mg/gm).

Photo: Kelp off the coast of Hokkaido

When studied in 1964 Japanese seaweed consumption was found to be 4.5 grams (gm) a day and that eaten had a measured iodine concentration of 3.1 mg/gm of seaweed (= 13.8 mg of iodine). According to public health officials, mainland Japanese now consume 14.5 gm of seaweed a day (= 45 mg of iodine, if its iodine content, not measured, remains unchanged). Researchers have determined that residents on the coast of Hokkaido eat a quantity of seaweed sufficient to provide a daily iodine intake of 200 mg a day. Saltwater fish and shellfish contain iodine, but one would have to eat 15-25 pounds of fish to get 12 mg of iodine.

Health comparisons between the two countries are disturbing. The incidence of breast cancer in the U.S. is the highest in the world, and in Japan, until recently, the lowest. Japanese women who emigrate from Japan or adopt a Western style diet have a higher rate of breast cancer compared with those that consume seaweed. Life expectancy in the U.S. is 77.85 years, 48th in 226 countries surveyed. It is 81.25 years in Japan, the highest of all industrialized countries and only slightly behind the five leaders—Andorra, Macau, San Marino, Singapore, and Hong Kong. The infant mortality rate in Japan is the lowest in the world, 3.5 deaths under age one per 1,000 live births, half the infant mortality rate in the United States.

Today 1 in 7 American women (almost 15 percent) will develop breast cancer during their lifetime. Thirty years ago, when iodine consumption was twice as high as it is now (480 μg a day) 1 in 20 women developed breast cancer. Iodine was used as a dough conditioner in making bread, and each slice of bread contained 0.14 mg of iodine. In 1980, bread makers started using bromide as a conditioner instead, which competes with iodine for absorption into the thyroid gland and other tissues in the body. Iodine was also more widely used in the dairy industry 30 years ago than it is now.

Now iodized table salt is the chief source of iodine in a Western diet. But 45 percent of American households buy salt without iodine, which grocery stores also sell. And over the last three decades people who do use iodized table salt have decreased their consumption of it by 65 percent. Furthermore, the much higher concentrations of chloride in salt (NaCl) inhibits absorption of its sister halogen iodine (the intestines absorb only 10 percent of the iodine present in iodized table salt). As a result, 15 percent of the U.S. adult female population suffers from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, which health authorities define as a urinary iodine concentration less than 50 μg /L. Women with goiters (a visible, noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland) owing to iodine deficiency have been found to have a three times greater incidence of breast cancer. A high intake of iodine is associated with a low incidence breast cancer, and a low intake with a high incidence of breast cancer.

Animal studies show that iodine prevents breast cancer, arguing for a causal association in these epidemiological findings. The carcinogens nitrosmethylurea and DMBA cause breast cancer in more than 70 percent of female rats. Those given iodine, especially in its molecular form as I2, have a statistically significant decrease in incidence of cancer. Other evidence that adds biologic plausibility to the hypothesis that iodine prevents breast cancer includes the finding that the ductal cells in the breast, the ones most likely to become cancerous, are equipped with an iodine pump (the sodium iodine symporter, the same one that the thyroid gland has) to soak up this element.

Similar findings apply to fibrocystic disease of the breast. The incidence of fibrocystic breast disease in American women was 3 percent in the 1920s. Today, 90 percent of women have this disorder, manifested by epithelial hyperplasia, apocrine gland metaplasia, fluid-filled cysts, and fibrosis. Six million American women with fibrocystic disease have moderate to severe breast pain and tenderness that lasts more than 6 days during the menstrual cycle.

In animal studies, female rats fed an iodine-free diet develop fibrocystic changes in their breasts, and iodine in its elemental form (I2) cures it.

Russian researchers first showed, in 1966, that iodine effectively relieves signs and symptoms of fibrocystic breast disease. Vishniakova and Murav’eva treated 167 women suffering from fibrocystic disease with 50 mg KI during the intermenstrual period and obtained a beneficial healing effect in 71 percent (it is reference 49 here).

Then Ghent and coworkers, in a study published in the Canadian Journal of Surgery in 1993, also found that iodine relieves signs and symptoms of fibrocystic breast disease in 70 percent of patients. Their report is a composite of three clinical studies, two case series done in Canada in 696 women treated with various types of iodine, and one in Seattle. The Seattle study, done at the Virginia Mason Clinic, is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 56 women designed to compare 3-5 mg of elemental iodine (I2) to a placebo (an aqueous mixture of brown vegetable dye with quinine).

Investigators followed the women for six months and tracked subjective and objective changes in their fibrocystic disease.

A statistical analysis of the Seattle study (enlarged to include 92 women) was done, which shows that iodine has a highly statistically significant beneficial effect on fibrocystic disease (P < 0.001). Iodine reduced breast tenderness, nodularity, fibrosis, turgidity, and number of macroscysts, the five parameters in a total breast examination score that a physician blinded to what treatment the woman was taking, iodine or placebo, measured. This 36-page report, now available online, was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995 seeking its approval to carry out a larger randomized controlled clinical trial on iodine for treating fibrocystic breast disease. It declined to approve the study, telling its lead investigator, Dr. Donald Low, "iodine is a natural substance, not a drug." But the FDA has now decided to approve a similar trial sponsored by Symbollon Pharmaceuticals. This company is enrolling 175 women in a phase III trial, registered on clinicaltrials.gov. (Any women with fibrocystic disease reading this who might be interested in participating in this study should call its sponsor, Jack Kessler, Ph.D., at 508-620-7676, Ext. 201.)

Most physicians and surgeons view iodine from a narrow perspective. It is an antiseptic that disinfects drinking water and prevents surgical wound infections, and the thyroid gland needs it to make thyroid hormones—and that’s it. The thyroid gland needs iodine to synthesize thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), hormones that regulate metabolism and steer growth and development. The thyroid needs only a trace amount of iodine, 70 μg a day, to produce the requisite amount of T4 and T3. For that reason thyroidologists say that iodine is best taken just in microgram amounts. They consider consuming more than 1 to 2 mg of iodine a day to be excessive and potentially harmful.

Expert opinion on iodine is now the purview of thyroidologists. Mainstream physicians and surgeons accept their thyroid-only view of iodine and either ignore or discount studies that show iodine in larger amounts provides extrathyroidal benefits, particularly for women’s breasts. Thus a leading textbook on breast disease, Bland and Copeland’s The Breast: Comprehensive Management of Benign and Malignant Disorders (2003), fails to mention iodine anywhere in its 1,766 pages.

Iodine has an important and little understood history. Studying kelp researchers have shown how iodine does this and found that kelp will absorb increased amounts of iodine when placed under oxidative stress. Other rersearches have shown that iodine increases the antioxidant status of human serum similar to that of vitamin C.

Iodine also induces apoptosis, programmed cell death. This process is essential to growth and development (fingers form in the fetus by apoptosis of the tissue between them) and for destroying cells that represent a threat to the integrity of the organism, like cancer cells and cells infected with viruses. Human lung cancer cells with genes spliced into them that enhance iodine uptake and utilization undergo apoptosis and shrink when given iodine, both when grown in vitro outside the body and implanted in mice. Its anti-cancer function may well prove to be iodine’s most important extrathyroidal benefit.

Iodine has other extrathyroidal functions that require more study. It removes toxic chemicals—fluoride, bromide, lead, aluminum, mercury—and biological toxins, suppresses auto-immunity, strengthens the T-cell adaptive immune system, and protects against abnormal growth of bacteria in the stomach.

In addition to the thyroid and mammary glands, other tissues possess an iodine pump (the sodium-iodine symporter). Stomach mucosa, the salivary glands, and lactating mammary glands can concentrate iodine almost to the same degree as the thyroid gland (40-fold greater than its concentration in blood). Other tissues that have this pump include the ovaries; thymus gland, seat of the adaptive immune system; skin; choroid plexus in the brain, which makes cerebrospinal fluid; and joints, arteries and bone.

Today’s medical establishment is wary of iodine (as they are of most naturally occurring, nonpatentable, nonpharmaceutical agents). Thyroidologists cite the Wolff-Chaikoff effect and warn that TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) blood levels can rise with an iodine intake of a milligram or more. The Wolff-Chaikoff effect, a temporary inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis that supposedly occurs with increased iodine intake, is of no clinical significance. And an elevated TSH, when it occurs, is "subclinical." This means that no signs or symptoms of hypothyroidism accompany its rise. Some people taking milligram doses of iodine, usually more than 50 mg a day, develop mild swelling of the thyroid gland without symptoms. The vast majority of people, 98 to 99 percent, can take iodine in doses ranging from 10 to 200 mg a day without any clinically adverse affects on thyroid function. The prevalence of thyroid diseases in the 127 million people in Japan who consume iodine is not much different than that in the U.S.

Everyone agrees that a lack of iodine in the diet causes a spectrum of disorders that includes, in increasing order of severity, goiter and hypothyroidism, mental retardation, and cretinism (severe mental retardation accompanied by physical deformities). Health authorities in the U.S. and Europe have agreed upon a Reference Daily Intake (RDI), formerly called the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), for iodine designed to prevent these disorders, which the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates afflicts 30 percent of the world’s population. The RDI for iodine, first proposed in 1980, is 100-150 µg/day. Organizations advocating this amount include the American Medical Association, National Institutes of Health’s National Research Council, Institute of Medicine, United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization, WHO Expert Committee, and the European Union International Programme on Chemical Safety. These health authorities consider an RDI of 100-150 µg/day of iodine sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals.

This consensus on iodine intake flies in the face of evidence justifying a higher amount. This evidence includes animal studies, in vitro studies on human cancer cell lines, clinical trials of iodine for fibrocystic breast disease, and epidemiological data. An intake of 150 µg/day of iodine will prevent goiters and the other recognized iodine deficiency disorders, but not breast disease. Prevention of breast disease requires higher doses of iodine. Indeed, a reasonable hypothesis is that, like goiters and cretinism, fibrocystic disease of the breast and breast cancer are iodine deficiency disorders (and uterine fibroids as well).

What Albert Guérard writes about new truths applies especially to iodine: "When you seek a new path to truth, you must expect to find it blocked by expert opinion." The reigning truth on iodine is that the thyroid gland is the only organ in the body that requires this micronutrient, and a daily intake of iodine considerably more than what the thyroid gland needs is potentially harmful. The new truth is that the rest of the body also needs iodine, in milligram, not microgram amounts.

These are the four most common formulations of inorganic (nonradioactive) iodine, as iodide (I-) with or without molecular iodine (I2): Potassium iodide (KI) tablets, in doses ranging from 0.23 to 130 mg; super saturated potassium iodide (SSKI), 19-50 mg of iodide per drop; Lugol's solution, 6.3 mg of molecular iodine/iodide per drop; and Iodoral, each tablet containing 12.5 mg iodine/iodide. Both Lugol’s solution and Ioderal are one-third molecular iodine (5%) and two thirds potassium iodide (10%). Studies done to date indicate that the best iodine supplement is one that includes molecular iodine (I2), which breast tissue prefers.

Iodine was used for a wide variety of ailments after its discovery in 1811 up until the mid-1900s, when thyroidologists warned that "excess" amounts of iodine might adversely affect thyroid function. It is effective in gram amounts for treating various dermatologic conditions, chronic lung disease, fungal infestations, tertiary syphilis, and even arteriosclerosis. The Nobel laureate Dr. Albert Szent Györgi (1893-1986), the physician who discovered vitamin C, writes: "When I was a medical student, iodine in the form of KI was the universal medicine. Nobody knew what it did, but it did something and did something good. We students used to sum up the situation in this little rhyme: If ye don’t know where, what, and why Prescribe ye then K and I"

The standard dose of potassium iodide given was 1 gram, which contains 770 mg of iodine.

Regarding KI and other iodine salts (like sodium iodide), the venerated 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, published in 1911, states, "Their pharmacological action is as obscure as their effects in certain diseased conditions are consistently brilliant. Our ignorance of their mode of action is cloaked by the term deobstruent, which implies that they possess the power of driving out impurities from the blood and tissues. Most notably is this the case with the poisonous products of syphilis. In its tertiary stage—and also earlier—this disease yields in the most rapid and unmistakable fashion to iodides, so much so that the administration of these salts is at present the best means of determining whether, for instance, a cranial tumor be syphilitic or not."

Photo: Pyoderma Gangrenosum

This 19th and early 20th century medicine continues to be used in gram amounts in the 21st century by dermatologists. They treat inflammatory dermatoses, like nodular vasculitis and pyoderma gangrenosum (shown here), with SSKI, beginning with an iodine dose of 900 mg a day, followed by weekly increases up to 6 grams a day as tolerated. Fungal eruptions, like sporotrichosis, are treated initially in gram amount with great success. These lesions can disappear within two weeks after treatment with gram doses of iodine.

For many years physicians used potassium iodide in doses starting at 1.5 to 3 gm and up to more than 10 grams a day, on and off, to treat bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with good results and surprisingly few side effects.

There is a case report in the medical literature of a 54 year old man who, thinking it was iced tea, drank a "home preparation" of SSKI in water that his aunt kept in the refrigerator for her rheumatism. Over a short time he consumed 600 ml of this solution, which contained 15 gm of iodide, an amount 100,000 times more than its RDI. He developed swelling of the face, neck, and mouth, had transient cardiac arrhythmias and made an uneventful recovery.

Dr. Guy Abraham, a former professor of obstetrics and gynecology at UCLA, mounted what he calls "The Iodine Project" in 1997 after he read the Ghent paper on iodine for fibrocystic disease. He had his company, Optimox Corp., make Iodoral, the tablet form of Lugol’s solution, and he engaged two family practice physicians, Dr. Jorge Flechas (in 2000) and Dr. David Brownstein (in 2003) to carry out clinical studies with it.

The project’s hypothesis is that maintaining whole body sufficiency of iodine requires 12.5 mg a day, an amount similar to what the Japanese consume. The conventional view is that the body contains 25-50 mg of iodine, of which 70-80 percent resides in the thyroid gland. Dr. Abraham concluded that whole body sufficiency exists when a person excretes 90 percent of the iodine ingested. He devised an iodine loading test where one takes 50 mg and measures the amount excreted in the urine over the next 24 hours. He found that the vast majority of people retain a substantial amount of the 50 mg dose. Many require 50 mg a day for several months before they will excrete 90 percent of it. His studies indicate that, given a sufficient amount, the body will retain much more iodine than originally thought, 1,500 mg, with only 3 percent of that amount held in the thyroid gland.

More than 4,000 patients in this project take iodine in daily doses ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg, and in those with diabetes, up to 100 mg a day. These investigators have found that iodine does indeed reverse fibrocystic disease; their diabetic patients require less insulin; hypothyroid patients, less thyroid medication; symptoms of fibromyalgia resolve, and patients with migraine headaches stop having them. To paraphrase Dr. Szent- Györgi, these investigators aren’t sure how iodine does it, but it does something good.

Thyroid function remains unchanged in 99 percent of patients. Untoward effects of iodine, allergies, swelling of the salivary glands and thyroid, and iodism, occur rarely, in less than 1 percent. Iodine removes the toxic halogens fluoride and bromide from the body. Iodism, an unpleasant brassy taste, runny nose, and acne-like skin lesions, is caused by the bromide that iodine extracts from the tissues. Symptoms subside on a lesser dose of iodine.

As theses physicians point out, consuming iodine in milligram doses should, of course, be coupled with a complete nutritional program that includes adequate amounts of selenium, magnesium, and Omega 3 fatty acids. Done this way, an iodine intake 100 times the reference daily intake is "the simplest, safest, most effective and least expensive way to help solve the health care crisis crippling our nation," as the leader of The Iodine Project, Dr. Abraham, puts it.

People who take iodine in these amounts report that they have a greater sense of well-being, increased energy, and a lifting of brain fog. They feel warmer in cold environments, need somewhat less sleep, have more regular bowel movements, and improved skin complexion. These purported health benefits need to be studied more thoroughly, as do those with regard to fibrocystic breast disease and cancer.

Meanwhile, perhaps we should emulate the Japanese and substantially increase our iodine intake, if not with seaweed, then with two drops of Lugol’s Solution (or one Iodoral tablet) a day.

Recommended Reading:

Miller DW. Iodine in Health and Civil Defense. Presented at the 24th Annual Meeting of Doctors for Disaster, can be found here.

Abraham GE. The safe and effective implementation of orthoiodosupplementation in medical practice. The Original Internist 2004;11:17-36 abailable here. A good introduction to The Iodine Project. His other research studies are online here. .

Flechas, JD. Orthoiodosupplementation in a primary care practice. The Original Internist 2005;12(2):89-96. Available online here

Brownstein D. Clinical experience with inorganic, non-radioactive iodine/iodide. The Original Internist 2005;12(3):105-108. Available online here.

Derry D. Breast cancer and Iodine: How to prevent and how to survive Breast cancer. Victoria, B.C.: Trafford Publishing; 2002.

Brownstein D., Iodine: why you need it and why you can't live without it. West Bloomfield, Michigan: Medical Alternatives Press; 2004.

Low DE, Ghent WR, Hill LD. Diatomic iodine treatment for fibrocystic disease: special report of efficacy and safety results. [Submitted to the FDA] 1995:1-38. Available online here.


Donald Miller (sendhimmail) is a cardiac surgeon and Professor of Surgery at the University of Washington in Seattle. He is a member of Doctors for Disaster Preparedness and writes articles on a variety of subjects for LewRockwell.com. His web site is www.donaldmiller.com






Crossing the Red Sea..finding Pharoah's army

by Anonymous


Photo: Gilded Chariot Wheel

"God's Word is an anvil that has worn out many hammers."

You will be surprised to see proof of Pharaoh's chariots and bones of horses and men found in the Red Sea. Evidence of the crossing of the Red Sea.

Photo: Wheel Artifact

Confirmation of the actual Exodus route has come from divers finding coral-encrusted bones and chariot remains in the Gulf of Aqaba.

ONE of the most dramatic records of Divine intervention in history is the account of the Hebrews' exodus from Egypt.

Photo: Exodus Route

The subsequent drowning of the entire Egyptian army in the Red Sea was not an insignificant event, and confirmation of this event is compelling evidence that the Biblical narrative is a truly authentic account.

Over the years, many divers have searched the Gulf of Suez in vain for artifacts to verify the Biblical account. But, carefully following the Biblical and historical records of the Exodus brings you to Nuweiba, a large beach in the Gulf of Aqaba, as Ron Wyatt discovered in 1978.

When Ron Wyatt first visited Nuweiba in 1978, he found a Phoenician style column lying in the water. Unfortunately the inscriptions had been eroded away, hence the column's importance was not understood until 1984 when a second granite column was found on the Saudi coastline opposite, identical to the first, except on this one the inscription was still intact!

Photo: Actual Crossing

In Phoenician letters (Archaic Hebrew), it contained the words: Mizraim (Egypt ); Solomon; Edom ; death; Pharaoh; Moses; and Yahweh, indicating that King Solomon had set up these columns as a memorial to the miracle of the crossing of the sea.

Saudi Arabia does not admit tourists, and perhaps fearing unauthorized visitors, the Saudi Authorities have since removed this column, and replaced it with a flag marker where it once stood.

The Bible writers frequently refer to the miracle of the Red Sea crossing, for it was an event which finds no equal in history.

The Hebrew prophets describe the sea at the crossing site as '...the waters of the great deep...the depths of the sea...' Isaiah 51:10 How deep is the water?

Photo: The amazing land bridge

The Gulf of Aqabais is very deep, in places over a mile (1,600m) deep. Even with the sea dried up, walking across would be difficult due to the steep grade down the sides. But, there is one spot where if the water were removed it would be an easy descent for people and animals.

Photo: Above NUWEIBA BEACH

The spot where the crossing began. This is the line between Nuweiba and the opposite shore in Saudi Arabia. The distance between Nuweiba and where artifacts have been found on Saudi coast is about 18km (11 miles).

Depth-sounding expeditions have revealed a smooth, gentle slope descending from Nuweiba out into the Gulf. This shows up almost like a pathway on depth-recording equipment, confirming it's Biblical description, '...a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters.' (Isaiah 43:16) Knowing the exact spot to which the Bible writers were referring, what is the depth there?

Along this line, the deepest point is about 800m (2,600 feet). No wonder that inspired writers of the Bible described it as the mighty waters. And no wonder that not a single Egyptian survived when the water collapsed in upon them.

Repeated dives in depths ranging from 60 to 200 feet deep (18m to 60m), over a stretch of almost 2.5 km, has shown that the chariot parts are scattered across the sea bed. Artifacts found include wheels, chariot bodies, as well as human and horse bones. Divers have located fossils on the Saudi coastline opposite Nuweiba as well.

Photo: Human & Horse Bones

Mineralized bone, one of many found at the crossing site.

This one tested by the Department of Osteology at Stockholm University, was found to be a human femur, from the right leg of a 165-170cm tall man. It is essentially 'fossilized, ' i.e., replaced by minerals and coral, hence cannot be dated by radiocarbon methods, although this specimen was obviously from antiquity. Mute witness to the miracle of the crossing of the Red Sea by the Hebrews 3,500 years ago.

Photo: One of Four wheels found

A chariot wheel and axle covered with coral and up-ended. Found with a metal detector. Coral-encrusted chariot wheel, filmed off the Saudi coastline, matches chariot wheels found in Tutankhamen's tomb.

Exodus 14:25 "And took off their chariot wheels, that they drove them heavily..."

Since 1987, Ron Wyatt found three four-spoke gilded chariot wheels. Coral does not grow on gold hence the shape has remained very distinct, although the wood inside the gold veneer has disintegrated making them too fragile to move.

The hope for future expeditions is to explore the deeper waters with remote cameras or mini-subs.


The Secret Poceedings of the Kansas Supreme Court...

by Denis Boyles


Locking the courthouse door may seem like a lousy way to insure fair justice for all, but holding secret hearings on one of the state's most controversial issues is exactly what the Kansas Supreme Court is doing.

Most of us don't trust courts that operate in the dark. Americans, observed Justice Hugo Black 60 years ago, have a "historic distrust of secret proceedings, their inherent dangers to freedom, and the universal requirement of our federal and state governments that criminal trials be public."

Here's a short list of places where secret court proceedings are not unknown:

  • North Korea
  • Iran
  • China
  • Cuba
  • Syria
  • Zimbabwe
  • Kansas

All those secretive Syrians and enigmatic North Koreans probably would beg to differ, but, to paraphrase everybody's favorite Sunflower cliché, "what's up with Kansas?" How did it hop onto that short list of kangaroo judiciaries?

Back in June 2007, Planned Parenthood of Kansas and Mid-Missouri filed charges in the Kansas Supreme Court against former Attorney General and Johnson County District Attorney Phill Kline, all part of the ongoing battle by abortion clinics to prevent government enforcement of state laws regarding late-term abortions and child molestation.

Peter Brownlie, Planned Parenthood's CEO, confirmed the filing and that's the last we've heard, because Planned Parenthood requested a secret hearing, and the Kansas Supreme Court gave them one. That meant, according to David Klepper, blogging at the Kansas City Star, "the public couldn't see what the court case involved, couldn't read the filings, couldn't sit in on what surely must have been a fascinating hearing before the Supreme Court."

It's risky business when courts invite ridicule, but at the Kansas Supreme Court, the invitation's a standing one. Because of the eccentricities of state law, none of the supreme court's justices have ever been vetted by elected representatives. As many critics, including KU law professor Stephen J. Ware, have complained, "..there's no confirmation process at all" the governor appoints them and there they sit, sometimes dozing through cases that often seem to have already been decided by some backroom handshake.

Because Kansas has never had a conservative governor, there's not even much political diversity on the court. All the members are in general agreement on the way things ought to be in Kansas in fact, in 2005, they even started passing legislation of their own, deciding to the penny how much the state should spend on educating kids. Most of them have, at one time or other, made clear their impatience with wing-nuts and others who disagree with them.

You'd think conservatives would be pleased with a court that has moved so far back in time that its hearings resemble the Star Chamber trials that ended the reign and the life of Britain's Charles the First back in the 1600s.

But no. this afternoon, Rep. Lance Kinzer's House Judiciary Committee will hold hearings "public's invited, of course"on HB 2825, a crowbar bill that would pry open courtroom doors across the state by limiting the ability of judges to conduct secret trials and hearings or have their pleadings sealed.

The Planned Parenthood v Kline case triggered Kinzer's concern, but, as he wrote in an email, the bill is "more of an open [government] issue than a pro-life issue." In a statement released yesterday, Kinzer wrote, "The public has a fundamental interest in all cases that are submitted to a court for resolution. It is an unfortunate reality today that many of the most important public policy issues facing our State are being decided by courts. As such it is more important than ever that our judicial process is open and accessible."

An open court presided over by justices who have been through a public confirmation process? There's a wild and crazy idea, one that's never been tried in Teheran or in Topeka.


Denis Boyles, comments on the media and the Midwest for National Review Online, also writes the Monday, Monday column for Kansas Liberty. He's the author of Superior, Nebraska, an oddly-titled book mostly about Kansas.



Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

{This article supports the observation that Anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide are not causing global warming or climate change. As can clearly be seen in the Figures, the Medieval warming period shows much greater temperatures than those of post modern industrialization. Additionally, sea levels have been rising well before the onset of the oil and gas age.

This is an abridged version of the original piece by Arthur Robinson, Noah Robinson and Willie Soon, a bit lengthy but well worth the read. It is reprinted by permission of the authors. The complete article is available here. - Ed. }

by Arthur Robinson, Noah E. Robinson, and Willie Soon


Figure 1 (Main photo): Average length of 169 glaciers from 1700 to 2000 (4). The principal source of melt energy is solar radiation. Variations in glacier mass and length are primarily due to temperature and precipitation (5,6). This melting trend lags the temperature increase by about 20 years, so it predates the 6-fold increase in hydrocarbon use (7) even more than shown in the figure. Hydrocarbon use could not have caused this shortening trend.

Political leaders gathered in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997 to consider a world treaty restricting human production of "greenhouse gases," chiefly carbon dioxide (CO2). They feared that CO2 would result in "human-caused global warming" – hypothetical severe increases in Earth's temperatures, with disastrous environmental consequences. During the past 10 years, many political efforts have been made to force worldwide agreement to the Kyoto treaty.

When we reviewed this subject in 1998 (1,2), existing satellite records were short and were centered on a period of changing intermediate temperature trends. Additional experimental data have now been obtained, so better answers to the questions raised by the hypothesis of "human-caused global warming" are now available.

Figure 2: Surface temperatures in the Sargasso Sea, a two million square mile region of the Atlantic Ocean, with time resolution of 50 to 100 years and ending in 1975, as determined by isotope ratios of marine organism remains in sediment at the bottom of the sea (3). The horizontal line is the average temperature for this 3,000-year period. The Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Optimum were naturally occurring, extended intervals of climate departures from the mean. A value of 0.25 °C, which is the change in Sargasso Sea temperature between 1975 and 2006, has been added to the 1975 data in order to provide a 2006 temperature value.

The average temperature of the Earth has varied within a range of about 3°C during the past 3,000 years. It is currently increasing as the Earth recovers from a period that is known as the Little Ice Age, as shown in Figure 2. George Washington and his army were at Valley Forge during the coldest era in 1,500 years, but even then the temperature was only about 1° Centigrade below the 3,000-year average.

During the Medieval Climate Optimum, temperatures were warm enough to allow the colonization of Greenland. These colonies were abandoned after the onset of colder temperatures. For the past 200 to 300 years, Earth temperatures have been gradually recovering (26). Sargasso Sea temperatures are now approximately equal to the average for the previous 3,000 years.

The historical record does not contain any report of "global warming" catastrophes, even though temperatures have been higher than they are now during much of the last three millennia.

Figure 3: Arctic surface air temperature compared with total solar irradiance as measured by sunspot cycle amplitude, sunspot cycle length, solar equatorial rotation rate, fraction of penumbral spots, and decay rate of the 11-year sunspot cycle (8,9). Solar irradiance correlates well with Arctic temperature, while hydrocarbon use (7) does not correlate.

The most recent part of this warming period is reflected by shortening of world glaciers, as shown in Figure 4. Glaciers regularly lengthen and shorten in delayed correlation with cooling and warming trends. Shortening lags temperature by about 20 years, so the current warming trend began in about 1800.

Figure 4: Average length of 169 glaciers from 1700 to 2000 (4). The principal source of melt energy is solar radiation. Variations in glacier mass and length are primarily due to temperature and precipitation (5,6). This melting trend lags the temperature increase by about 20 years, so it predates the 6-fold increase in hydrocarbon use (7) even more than shown in the figure. Hydrocarbon use could not have caused this shortening trend.

Surface temperatures in the United States during the past century reflect this natural warming trend and its correlation with solar activity, as shown in Figure 3. Compiled U.S. surface temperatures have increased about 0.5 °C per century, which is consistent with other historical values of 0.4 to 0.5 °C per century during the recovery from the Little Ice Age (13-17). This temperature change is slight as compared with other natural variations. Three intermediate trends are evident, including the decreasing trend used to justify fears of "global cooling" in the 1970s.

ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE

During the past 50 years, atmospheric CO2 has increased by 22%. The magnitude of this atmospheric increase is currently about 4 gigatons (Gt C) of carbon per year. Total human industrial CO2 production, primarily from use of coal, oil, and natural gas and the production of cement, is currently about 8 Gt C per year (7,56,57). Humans also exhale about 0.6 Gt C per year, which has been sequestered by plants from atmospheric CO2. Office air concentrations often exceed 1,000 ppm CO2.

Much of that CO2 increase is attributable to the 6-fold increase in human use of hydrocarbon energy. However, figures 2, 3, &4 show that human use of hydrocarbons has not caused the observed increases in temperature.

Between 1900 and 2000, on absolute scales of solar irradiance and degrees Kelvin, solar activity increased 0.19%, while a 0.5 °C temperature change is 0.21%. This is in good agreement with estimates that Earth's temperature would be reduced by 0.6 °C through particulate blocking of the sun by 0.2%(18).

Figure 5: U.S. surface temperature from Figure 3 as compared with total solar irradiance (19).


Between 1900 and 2006, Antarctic CO2 increased 30% per 0.1 °C temperature change (72), and world CO2 increased 30% per 0.5 °C. In addition to ocean out-gassing, CO2 from human use of hydrocarbons is a new source. Neither this new source nor the older natural CO2 sources are causing atmospheric temperature to change.

Carbon dioxide has a very short residence time in the atmosphere. Beginning with the 7 to 10-year half-time of CO2 in the atmosphere estimated by Revelle and Seuss (69), there were 36 estimates of the atmospheric CO2 half-time based upon experimental measurements published between 1957 and 1992 (59). These range between 2 and 25 years, with a mean of 7.5, a median of 7.6, and an upper range average of about 10. Of the 36 values, 33 are 10 years or less.

There is no experimental evidence to support computer model estimates (73) of a CO2 atmospheric "lifetime" of 300 years or more.


FERTILIZATION OF PLANTS BY CO2


How high will the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere ultimately rise if mankind continues to increase the use of coal, oil, and natural gas? At ultimate equilibrium with the ocean and other reservoirs there will probably be very little increase. The current rise is a non-equilibrium result of the rate of approach to equilibrium. One reservoir that would moderate the increase is especially important.

Plant life provides a large sink for CO2. Using current knowledge about the increased growth rates of plants and assuming increased CO2 release as compared to current emissions, it has been estimated that atmospheric CO2 levels may rise to about 600 ppm before leveling off. At that level, CO2 absorption by increased Earth biomass is able to absorb about 10 Gt C per year (100).

Does a catastrophic amplification of these trends with damaging climatological consequences lie ahead? There are no experimental data that suggest this. There is also no experimentally validated theoretical evidence of such an amplification.

GLOBAL WARMING HYPOTHESIS

Predictions of catastrophic global warming are based on computer climate modeling, a branch of science still in its infancy. The empirical evidence – actual measurements of Earth's temperature and climate – shows no man-made warming trend. Indeed, during four of the seven decades since 1940 when average CO2 levels steadily increased, U.S. average temperatures were actually decreasing. While CO2 levels have increased substantially and are expected to continue doing so and humans have been responsible for part of this increase, the effect on the environment has been benign.

Not only has the global warming hypothesis failed experimental tests, it is theoretically flawed as well. It can reasonably be argued that cooling from negative physical and biological feedbacks to greenhouse gases nullifies the slight initial temperature rise (84,86).

Figure 6: Qualitative illustration of greenhouse warming. "Present GHE" is the current greenhouse effect from all atmospheric phenomena. "Radiative effect of CO2" is the added greenhouse radiative effect from doubling CO2 without consideration of other atmospheric components. "Hypothesis 1 IPCC" is the hypothetical amplification effect assumed by IPCC. "Hypothesis 2" is the hypothetical moderation effect.


When an increase in CO2 increases the radiative input to the atmosphere, how and in which direction does the atmosphere respond? Hypotheses about this response differ and are schematically shown in Figure 6. Without the water-vapor greenhouse effect, the Earth would be about 14 ºC cooler (81). The radiative contribution of doubling atmospheric CO2 is minor, but this radiative greenhouse effect is treated quite differently by different climate hypotheses.

The hypotheses that the IPCC (82,83) has chosen to adopt predict that the effect of CO2 is amplified by the atmosphere, especially by water vapor, to produce a large temperature increase. Other hypotheses, shown as hypothesis 2, predict the opposite – that the atmospheric response will counteract the CO2 increase and result in insignificant changes in global temperature (81,84,85,91,92). The experimental evidence, as described above, favors hypothesis 2.

The computer climate models upon which "human-caused global warming" is based have substantial uncertainties and are markedly unreliable. This is not surprising, since the climate is a coupled, non-linear dynamical system. It is very complex. Figure 7 illustrates the difficulties by comparing the radiative CO2 greenhouse effect with correction factors and uncertainties in some of the parameters in the computer climate calculations. Other factors, too, such as the chemical and climatic influence of volcanoes, cannot now be reliably computer modeled.

Figure 7: The radiative greenhouse effect of doubling the concentration of atmospheric CO2 (right bar) as compared with four of the uncertainties in the computer climate models.

The greenhouse effect amplifies solar warming of the earth. Greenhouse gases such as H2O, CO2, and CH4 in the Earth's atmosphere, through combined convective readjustments and the radiative blanketing effect, essentially decrease the net escape of terrestrial thermal infrared radiation. Increasing CO2, therefore, effectively increases radiative energy input to the Earth's atmosphere. The path of this radiative input is complex. It is redistributed, both vertically and horizontally, by various physical processes, including advection, convection, and diffusion in the atmosphere and ocean.

The reasons for the failure of the computer climate models are subjects of scientific debate (87). For example, water vapor is the largest contributor to the overall greenhouse effect (88). It has been suggested that the climate models treat feedbacks from clouds, water vapor, and related hydrology incorrectly (85,89-92).

The 3,000-year temperature record illustrated in Figure 1 also provides a test of the computer models. The historical temperature record shows that the Earth has previously warmed far more than could be caused by CO2 itself. Since these past warming cycles have not initiated water-vapor-mediated atmospheric warming catastrophes, it is evident that weaker effects from CO2 cannot do so.

There is no indication whatever in the experimental data that an abrupt or remarkable change in any of the ordinary natural climate variables is beginning or will begin to take place.

CONCLUSIONS

There are no experimental data to support the hypothesis that increases in human hydrocarbon use or in atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are causing or can be expected to cause unfavorable changes in global temperatures, weather, or landscape. There is no reason to limit human production of CO2, CH4, and other minor greenhouse gases as has been proposed (82,83,97,123).

We also need not worry about environmental calamities even if the current natural warming trend continues. The Earth has been much warmer during the past 3,000 years without catastrophic effects. Warmer weather extends growing seasons and generally improves the habitability of colder regions.

As coal, oil, and natural gas are used to feed and lift from poverty vast numbers of people across the globe, more CO2 will be released into the atmosphere. This will help to maintain and improve the health, longevity, prosperity, and productivity of all people.


References:

1. Robinson, A. B., Baliunas, S. L., Soon, W., and Robinson, Z. W. (1998) Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons 3, 171-178.

2. Soon, W., Baliunas, S. L., Robinson, A. B., and Robinson, Z. W. (1999) Climate Res. 13, 149-164.

3. Keigwin, L. D. (1996) Science 274, 1504-1508. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/contributions_by_author/keigwin1996/

4. Oerlemanns, J. (2005) Science 308, 675-677.

5. Oerlemanns, J., Björnsson, H., Kuhn, M., Obleitner, F., Palsson, F., Smeets, C. J. P. P., Vugts, H. F., and De Wolde, J. (1999) Boundary-Layer Meteorology 92, 3-26.

6. Greuell, W. and Smeets, P. (2001) J. Geophysical Res. 106, 31717-31727.

7. Marland, G., Boden, T. A., and Andres, R. J. (2007) Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emissions. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center,Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_glob.htm

8. Soon, W. (2005) Geophysical Research Letters 32, 2005GL023429.

9. Hoyt, D. V. and Schatten, K. H. (1993) J. Geophysical Res. 98, 18895-18906.

10. - 132. are available in the original publication.



Cold Facts on Global Warming: Global temperature caused by doubling atmospheric CO2 is bounded by an upper limit of 1.4-2.7 degrees centigrade

{The article below supports the observation that Anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide are not significantly affecting either global warming or climate change. These man made sources of CO2 are calculated and documented in Global Warming or global fraud? This is an abridged version of the original T. J. Nelson piece, still quite lengthy but well worth the read. It is reprinted by permission of the author. The complete article is available here. - Ed. }

Photo above: Absorption of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation by various gases in the atmosphere. Most of the ultraviolet light (below 0.3 microns) is absorbed by ozone (O3) and oxygen (O2). Carbon dioxide has three large absorption bands in the infrared region at about 2.7, 4.3, and 15 microns. Water has several absorption bands in the infrared, and even has some absorption well into the microwave region. {Peixoto, J.P. and Oort, A.H., Physics of Climate, Springer, 1992, p. 118.}



by T. J. Nelson

What is the contribution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide to global warming? This question has been the subject of many heated arguments, and a great deal of hysteria. In this article, we will consider a simple calculation, based on well-accepted facts, that shows that the expected global temperature increase caused by doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is bounded by an upper limit of 1.4-2.7 degrees centigrade. This result contrasts with the results of the IPCC's climate models, whose projections are shown to be unrealistically high.

There is general agreement that the Earth is naturally warmed to some extent by atmospheric gases, principally water vapor, in what is often called a "greenhouse effect". The Earth absorbs enough radiation from the sun to raise its temperature by 0.5 degrees per day, but is theoretically capable of emitting sufficient long-wave radiation to cool itself by 5 times this amount. The Earth maintains its energy balance in part by absorption of the outgoing longwave radiation in the atmosphere, which causes warming.

On this basis, it has been estimated that the current level of warming is on the order of 33 degrees C. That is to say, in the absence of so-called greenhouse gases, the Earth would be 33 degrees cooler than it is today, or about 255 K (-0.4° F). Of these greenhouse gases, water is by far the most important. Although estimates of the contribution from water vapor vary widely, most sources place it between 90 and 95% of the warming effect, or about 30-31 of the 33 degrees. Carbon dioxide, although present in much lower concentrations than water, absorbs more infrared radiation than water on a per-molecule basis and contributes about 84% of the total non-water greenhouse gas equivalents, or about 4.2-8.4% of the total greenhouse gas effect.

The 33 degree increase in temperature is not caused simply by absorption of radiation but mostly by the Earth's adaptation to higher temperatures, which includes secondary effects such as increased water vapor, cloud formation, and changes in albedo or surface reflectivity caused by melting and aging of snow and ice. Accurately calculating the relative contribution of each of these components presents major difficulties.

Traditionally, greenhouse gas levels are presented as dimensionless numbers representing parts per billion (ppb) multiplied by a scaling factor (global warming potential- GWP) that allows their relative efficiency of producing global temperature increases to be compared. For carbon dioxide, this scaling factor is 1.0. The factors for methane and nitrous oxide are 21 and 310, respectively, while sulfur hexafluoride is 23,900 times more effective than carbon dioxide. The GWP from carbon dioxide is primarily due to the position of its absorption bands in the critical longwave infrared region at 2, 3, 5, and 13-17 micrometers.

Methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, CFCs and other miscellaneous gases absorb radiation even more efficiently than carbon dioxide, but are also present at much lower concentrations. Their high GWP results from their molecular structure which makes them absorb strongly and at different wavelengths from water vapor and carbon dioxide. For example, although ozone is usually thought of as an absorber of ultraviolet radiation, it also absorbs longwave infrared at 9.6 micrometers. These gases account for another 1.3% of the natural greenhouse gas effect. The increase in the global energy balance caused by greenhouse gases is called "radiative forcing".

The GWP of a greenhouse gas is the ratio of the time-integrated radiative forcing from 1 kg of the gas in question compared to 1 kg of carbon dioxide. These GWP values are calculated over a 100 year time horizon and take into consideration not only the absorption of radiation at different wavelengths, but also the different atmospheric lifetimes of each gas and secondary effects such as effects on water vapor. For some gases, the GWP is too complex to calculate because the gas participates in complex chemical reactions. Most researchers use the GWPs compiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

Even though most of the so-called greenhouse effect is caused by water vapor, about 1-2 degrees of our current empirically-measured temperature of roughly 288 K (59° F) can be attributed to carbon dioxide. Water vapor is at least 99.99% of 'natural' origin, which is to say that no amount of deindustrialization could ever significantly change the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. Thus, climatologists have concentrated mostly on carbon dioxide and methane.

Figures from the U.S. Department of Energy show that the pre-industrial baseline of carbon dioxide is 288,000 ppb. The total current carbon dioxide is 368,400 parts per billion, or 0.0368% of the atmosphere. The ocean and biosphere possess a large buffering capacity, mainly because of carbon dioxide's large solubility in water. Because of this, it's safe to conclude that the anthropogenic component of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration will continue to remain roughly proportional to the rate of carbon dioxide emissions and therefore is in no danger of being saturated, which would allow all the emitted carbon dioxide to go into the atmosphere.

Of course, climate, like weather, is complex, nonlinear, and perhaps even chaotic. Increased solar irradiation can lower the albedo, which would amplify any effect caused by changes in solar flux, making the relation between radiation and temperature greater than linear.

Increased temperatures also cause increased evaporation of sea water, which can cause warming because of water's greenhouse effect, and also can affect the radiation flux by creating additional clouds.

The arithmetic of absorption of infrared radiation also works to decrease the linearity. Absorption of light follows a logarithmic curve -->

Figure 1: Transmitted light is a logarithmic function of concentration. This curve is the familiar Beer's Law.

as the amount of absorbing substance increases. It is generally accepted that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is already high enough to absorb almost all the infrared radiation in the main carbon dioxide absorption bands over a distance of only a few km. Thus, even if the atmosphere were heavily laden with carbon dioxide, it would still only cause an incremental increase in the amount of infrared absorption over current levels.

The net effect of all these processes is that doubling carbon dioxide would not double the amount of global warming. In fact, the effect of carbon dioxide is roughly logarithmic. Each time carbon dioxide (or some other greenhouse gas) is doubled, the increase in temperature is less than the previous increase. The reason for this is that, eventually, all the longwave radiation that can be absorbed has already been absorbed. It would be analogous to closing more and more shades over the windows of your house on a sunny day -- it soon reaches the point where doubling the number of shades can't make it any darker.

What does saturation mean?

The "saturation" argument does not mean that global warming doesn't occur. What saturation tells us is that exponentially higher levels of CO2 would be needed to produce a linear increase in absorption, and hence temperature. This is basic physics. Beer's law has not been repealed. CO2 is very nearly homogeneous throughout the atmosphere, so its concentration (as a percentage of the total) is about the same at all altitudes.

The presence or absence of water vapor has no bearing on whether radiation is absorbed by CO2. Water vapor is a red herring: it has essentially no effect on what CO2 does. Where water vapor becomes important is in the earth's response to CO2.

Saturation does not tell us whether CO2 can raise the atmospheric temperature, but it gives us a powerful clue about the shape of the curve of temperature vs. concentration.

Linear Climate projections:

The linear projection shown here, while obviously simplistic, is a more straightforward argument than those used in climate models, because it does not treat the radiative forcing caused by carbon dioxide separately from the planet's adaptation to it. In other words, we did not just build a model and add carbon dioxide, but instead took numbers that are based on empirical measurements and extended them by a small percentage.

Figure 2: Estimated greenhouse gas-induced global warming plotted against greenhouse gas concentrations expressed as a percentage of current-day values. The black curve is a linear extrapolation calculated from the DOE estimates of total current greenhouse gases. The sharp jump at the right is the data point from one computer model that predicts a nine degree increase from doubling current levels of carbon dioxide.

From the numbers, it is easy to calculate, assuming a linear dependence of temperature on greenhouse gas concentrations, that a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide

would produce an additional warming of (0.042 to 0.084) x 33 = 1.38 to 2.77 degrees centigrade.

Our calculation also assumes that the increase in temperature is linearly proportional to the greenhouse gas levels. However, as indicated above, the relationship is not linear, but logarithmic. A plot of temperature vs. gas concentration (expressed as a percentage of current-day levels) would be a convex curve, something like the blue curve in Figure 2. Thus, 1.4-2.7 degrees is an upper bound, and depending on the exact shape of the blue curve, could be an overestimate of the warming effect.

This 1.4-2.7 degree estimate is comparable to the estimate of 1.4 degrees associated with the "empiricist" school of the University of Delaware, University of Virginia, and Arizona State University. An increase of 1.4 degrees was also predicted by P.J. Michaels and R.C. Balling using the NCAR Community Climate Model 3 model, after the large increases in projected carbon dioxide in the original paper in which the model was described were replaced with more realistic ones.

Because a linear increase in temperature requires an exponential increase in carbon dioxide (thanks to the physics of radiation absorption described above), we know that the next two-fold increase in CO2 will produce exactly the same temperature increase as the previous two-fold increase. Although we haven't had a two-fold increase yet, it is easy to calculate from the observed values what to expect.

Between 1900 and 2000, atmospheric CO2 increased from 295 to 365 ppm, while temperatures increased about 0.57 degrees C (using the value cited by Al Gore and others). It is simple to calculate the proportionality constant (call it 'k') between the observed increase in CO2 and the observed temperature increase:

This shows that doubling CO2 over its current values should increase the earth's temperature by about 1.85 degrees C. Doubling it again would raise the temperature another 1.85 degrees C. Since these numbers are based on actual measurements, not models, they include the effects of amplification. These estimates assume that the correlation between global temperature and carbon dioxide is causal in nature. Therefore, the 1.85 degree estimate should also be regarded as an upper limit.

Figure 3: Calculated Temperature rise as a function of CO2 concentration.

It goes without saying that the results shown here depend on the accuracy of the original 33 degree estimate and the validity of extrapolating the existing curve out by an additional small increment. However, we can check the plausibility of the IPCC's result by asking the following question: Instead of 33 degrees, what number would result if we calculated backwards from the IPCC estimates?

Using the same assumption of linearity, if a 9 degree increase resulted from the above-mentioned increase of greenhouse gas levels, the current greenhouse gas level (which is by definition 100%) would be equivalent to a greenhouse gas-induced temperature increase of at least 107 degrees C. This means the for the 9 degree figure to be correct, the current global temperature would have to be at least 255 + 107 - 273 = 89 degrees centigrade, or 192° Fahrenheit! A model that predicts a current-day temperature well above the highest-ever observed temperature is clearly in need of serious tweaking.

What about secondary effects, such as ice melting, changes in albedo, and so forth? Doesn't this increase the predicted temperature beyond the 1.39 to 1.76 degree estimate? In short, no. Because these calculations are based on observed measurements, they automatically take into account all of the earth's responses. Whatever way the climate adapted to past CO2 increases, whether through melting, changes in albedo, or other effects, is already reflected in the measured temperature.

Some climatologists, making assumptions about ever increasing rates of carbon dioxide production, assert that the doubling will occur within a few decades instead of a few centuries. However, they are doing sociology, not climatology. The only honest way to estimate the change of CO2 levels is by using a simple linear extrapolation; otherwise, we are merely indulging in speculation about future social trends. At the current rate of increase, CO2 will not double its current level until 2255.

Conclusions:

Although carbon dioxide is capable of raising the Earth's overall temperature, the IPCC's predictions of catastrophic temperature increases produced by carbon dioxide have been challenged by many scientists. In particular, the importance of water vapor is frequently overlooked by environmental activists and by the media.

The above discussion shows that the large temperature increases predicted by many computer models are unphysical and inconsistent with results obtained by basic measurements. Skepticism is warranted when considering computer-generated projections of global warming that cannot even predict existing observations.


{T. J. Nelson is a practicing research scientist at a non-profit institute affiliated with a large University. - Ed.}